Like us on Facebook. In general, the interventional studies we cite all use aerobic or endurance training of varying intensities as the primary type of training. When your body is healthy at a cellular level, you become even stronger. Stickier blood which is more prone to clotting Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls Atherosclerosis Reduced blood flow to extremities fingers and toes Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply. What are the long-term effects of physical fitness on the cardiovascular system? Heart Health Some foods benefit the circulatory system.
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While all types of exercise provide health and fitness benefits, strength training and stretching have a minimal impact on the cardiovascular system. Aptly called cardio exercise, activities such as walking, running, biking and swimming activate the heart and lungs; when done routinely, they create enduring changes in your physiology.
When you exert the large, powerful muscles in your lower body for more than a few minutes, you create energy demands that increase your heart rate and respiration.
During cardio, you repeatedly contract and relax your gluteal, hamstring and quadriceps muscles. You quickly deplete the 30 seconds' worth of fuel, a molecule called ATP, your muscles have on hand. Your muscles resort to glucose in your blood and a sugar, glycogen, stored in your muscles for raw material to make more ATP.
Within a few minutes, your blood glucose levels start to dip, causing your pancreas to release a hormone, glucagon. Delivered through your bloodstream to tissues throughout your body, glucagon triggers the release of glycogen stored in your liver and triglycerides, or fat, stored in fat cells under your skin and in your abdomen. As your muscles burn fuel to power movement, nerves in your arteries detect a rise in carbon dioxide, a waste product produced by energy metabolism.
This triggers your brain to increase your heart and respiration rate. Your lungs inhale more deeply to get oxygen needed for burning carbohydrates, and you exhale more strongly to expel the carbon dioxide. Examples include oxygen, digested foods, waste materials and hormones. The blood destroys harmful bacteria and viruses. The blood can clot when we cut ourselves to prevent blood loss. The blood also plays a part in keeping our body tempratures constant.
Chemical reactions in our cells produce heat energy which the blood carries around the body. Blood Vessels Arteries can carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood to the heart. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that link the arteries and the veins Effects of Smoking on the Circulatory System Smoking tobacco is an addictive and dangerous activity.
The nicotine within the tobacco is and addictive drug and causes smokers to continue to smoke. Addicted smokers need enough nicotine over a day to satisfy cravings or control their mood. The amount of nicotine a person needs determines how much smoke they are likely to inhale smoke, no matter what type of cigarette they smoke. Along with nicotine, smokers inhale about 7, other chemicals in cigarette smoke. Many of these chemicals come from burning tobacco leaf.
Some of these compounds are chemically active and trigger damaging changes in the body. Tobacco smoke contains over 60 known cancer-causing chemicals. Smoking harms almost every organ in the body, causing many diseases and reducing health in general. Dangerous chemicals in Tobacco smoke include: Raised blood pressure and heart rate.
Tightening of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in drop in skin temperature. Less oxygen carried by the blood during exercise causing fitness to deteriorate. Stickier blood which is more prone to clotting Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls Atherosclerosis Reduced blood flow to extremities fingers and toes Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.
There are also more serious effects associated with smoking. Cancer of the lung, mouth, nose, larynx, tongue, nasal sinus, oesophagus, throat, pancreas, bone marrow, kidney, cervix, ovary, ureter, liver, bladder, bowel and stomach. All of which are connected to the circulatory system through blood vessels and so bear the risk of spreading to the heart and other essential organs of the circulatory system.
Heart diseases including coronary artery disease and heart attack. Both of which are directly linked As well as Poor blood circulation in feet and hands, which can lead to pain and, in severe cases, gangrene and amputation. Normal Circulation Poor Circulation The effect of Diet on the Circulatory System Diet also has a significant effect upon the overall health and wellness of your circulatory system.
Your diet affects the health of your blood vessels. Some of the foods you eat cause cholesterol plaques to build up in your arteries. They note, too, that the plant-based omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid has only weak effects on heart disease and does not affect as many factors as the omega-3s in seafood. The precise mechanisms for how omega-3s affect vascular disease are becoming better understood. Long-chain omega-3s are key components of cell membranes where they affect the communication within and between cells.
By partially replacing their corresponding omega-6 counterparts in membranes, omega-3s can dampen the effect of omega-6s on inflammation and heart arrhythmias.
In vascular endothelial cells, omega-3s have numerous anti-inflammatory effects, especially at the sites where plaque accumulates. Omega-3 fatty acids affect all stages of vascular disease, including alterations in blood lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure, platelet adhesiveness, relaxation of the arteries which eases blood flow and lowers blood pressure , changes in the electrical properties of the heart and alterations in gene expression.
Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce the growth of endothelial cells and the release of growth factors from injured blood vessels. These effects may help reduce the recurrence of narrowed blood vessels. Making healthy eating habits a way of life contributes beneficial nutrients and diminishes many conditions that promote vascular disease and other disorders. Healthy food patterns, especially when accompanied by positive lifestyle habits such as exercising regularly and not smoking, can improve endothelial function, too.
Improved nutrition has also been associated with less peripheral artery disease. Eating patterns like those in the Mediterranean Figure 3 and the DASH diets minimize the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, too much salt, and fried and heavily processed foods.
Instead, they emphasize eating generous amounts of fruits and vegetables, cereals rich in dietary fiber, fats such as olive and canola oils, herbs and spices instead of salt, nuts, moderate red wine, very little red meat, and eating fish and shellfish at least twice a week.
In North America and elsewhere, current dietary intakes of omega-3s are well below those recommended by the American Heart Association and other health authorities. Intakes of to mg per day are considered more beneficial to health. People with higher intakes of omega-3s have healthier endothelial function compared with those whose intakes are low.
Thus, increasing omega-3 intake is likely to benefit vascular function, inflammatory processes and the diseases associated with these conditions. A food-based approach to increasing omega-3 consumption means regularly including items such as seafood—especially fatty fish—and many products enriched with long-chain omega-3s.
These include eggs, yogurt, milk, spreads, some juices and beverages, and certain snack foods. The caution is that foods claiming to have omega-3s may contain only the plant-based omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid.