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Il est donc important que le développement des TIC soit mesuré par un ensemble d'indicateurs prenant en compte tous les éléments essentiels des TIC et l'accès aux services Internet à haut débit en particulier. Anyway, most studies find the opposite — no problems: Sean Go on bodybuilding. Showing product reviews from: The Chinese prefer dark meat chicken, not white.

Best Bites: Creamy crockpot mac n' cheese

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I am now looking to gain some big ass muscle and hence have a few questions.. How effective are the gainers available in the market? Are they really effective? What is the best gainer out there in the market which is really helpful for ectomorphs like us? How much of it should be taken per day? Is 1 scoop after breakfast and 1 after workout enough or should i be taking more? Hey Sushant, glad you got some gains man! Does that make sense? I agree with what other people are saying.

Some other favourites of mine are: Still not as good as making your own though. As for how much you should consume to grow? But your overall intake should be enough for you to gain weight on the scale and improve on your strength in the gym. Surrounding training though you can take advantage of a pretty potent advantage that nutrient timing offers. Would it be possible, especially increase my arm size.

You should get started soon though!! However, if I wanted to workout 4 times a week, do you think there would be any negative high calorie effects associated with taking that many calories? My understanding of the health component of consuming a lot of calories is that it depends on where those calories are going. What a great article, I love the fact that you use research studies to back up your claims. Your photos are also a great testament to your hard work. How gluten free friendly are you guys?

I eat a ton of beans and plenty of potatoes. Lots of guys eat tons of rice and quinoa. Pizza and pasta have never been big favourites of mine even from a taste perspective. What dosages do you reccomend for me personally? Very good article though. I was re-reading the article and was wondering, do I mix 90g of protein, g of carbs, and 15g of creatine also or triple it so it would be g of protein, grams of carbs and 45g of creatine?

Would I mix the 3, drink it before, after or during my workout? When would I have to drink the fish oil? I would start with 30g whey protein and 60g maltodextrin. If that goes well and it comes time to increase, then up it to 60g whey protein and g maltodextrin. Hey man, I started taking 2 2. I know that creatine has a unique relationship with water but if i have a lot of water, will i flush the creatine out of my system when i go to the bathroom? You want to take in a bit more than you need for that reason.

What is the best dosage for the NutraSea Fish oil? Just pour into a tspoon and consume once a day? Yep, consuming once a day is perfect. Or are you just using water in your shakes? Are there any advantages or disadvantages to using milk instead of water? Milk is a surprisingly potent workout drink, considering how ridiculously slowly we digest it! It has a lot of muscle-building benefits built into it, since there are so many rad vitamins and minerals in there, alongside a great source of protein.

You may dig this article, too: I have a very limited budget so I would just like to ask if buying creatine and whey protein will be enough? Or should I buy whey protein and fish oil isntead? I am a beginner when it comes to working out so forgive me for this question. I also read that there are harmful side effects when using fish oil, are those claims true? You can certainly ask your doctor though! I would also get kidney stones.. Or bowel movement would stop or go crazy if you get what I mean lol..

You think this program can help me. Almost all of us run into our share of mishaps, struggles and challenges with this stuff—I know I did! Yes, I think our program could help. We take a pretty methodical approach to this and the goal is to make you even more resistant to injury, not set you up for it. You may want to get clearance to do squats and deadlifts again, too.

You may find value in this article, too: On non-lifting days I try to eat as much whole nutritious food as possible. When it comes to starches my go-to favourites are: There are tons of options out there—another big favourite for a lot of healthfully-minded dudes is quinoa.

Do you consume the same amount of supplement servings on your rest days as well, or is it only on workout days? Are there any alternate body building supplements without Creatine, because doctor suggested me not to use because. Creatine is not suitable for me. And fish oil is still a great addition to your daily nutrition. However, the protocol seems a little scary. What do you suggest? I was thinking of going for whey protein first.

But would that not add a lot of gains? I hope I converted that right. I wanna gain muscles so bad.. I went through the comments and i hope that you reply on the few ones on top. That will clear out and help me a big time. Hey Sultan, I try to answer every single question!

Do i have to take creatine dosage plus add creatine it to my drink for workout day or the drink is enough? The workout drink is more than enough creatine for the day! Hi Shane my name is Ryan, I just so happened to stumble across one of your articles a couple hours ago and since then have thoroughly enjoyed most of what your website has to offer.

Must say very impressed! A lot has changed since high school, I am 20 years old now and 5 months away from shipping out for basic training for the military cant enlist until braces are off. Now couple years later terrible diet, virtually no excersise, and no supplements. I am 6foot 1 and pounds.

Not chubby at all but def fat has hidden my 6 pack away: As I said I have a few months to jump back on board and I am dead serious about getting in the best shape of my life. I just bought YMCA membership and signed up for swimming lessons.

I want to bulk up with some serious muscle mass and burn some of this 22 percent body fat and get it back down to healthy level. Or will I need to make adjustments?

Most people need to make some adjustment or another, as everyone is a little different. Yep, the workout shake will still work. Just stick with a single dose—for now at least. Hope you decide to join us man! What would you suggest? We live in Toronto too. Seems like a great place to train at! Fish oil timing is one of those cases. This program sounds awesome! And man, looking at this site just makes me so excited to join and try!

Thanks for the heads up Oliver! Hey Shane, thanks for your reply. I noticed that you have updated the links, but not all of them. The ones of whey protein and Maltodextrin are still invalid. Do you mean what do we mix the powders with? Some of our guys use milk though and use a bit less whey and maltodextrin so that it has the same overall nutrient breakdown.

I only weigh 47kg. Can you please suggest me a good one. They seem to be broken right now, as bodybuilding. Sorry for the confusion! So which one will give me better result. Still working on it! Hi Shane, thanks for the great post here. The info you guys provide has been very helpful in my quest to gain weight. I just started using the fish oil that you have recommended thanks for the links and you were right, this stuff is really quite easy to take.

However, I just read a study which links omega 3s to a higher risk of prostate cancer. I was wondering if you have read this study yet? I figured I will talk to my doctor about this one before continuing with the omega supplements. Oh man that study has been making waves! Interestingly enough, fish oil actually reduces your chance of getting prostate cancer in several other ways: Aaaaand keep in mind that MOST studies still show that consumption of omega 3s reduces your risk of prostrate cancer!

The media is always coming out with sensational stuff like this, as this new research is shock worthy and increases readership. Thanks Shane, what a great article! As a ectomorph struggling to put on weight this is very helpful. I was going through the comments and must appreciate the fact that you take the time to answer all questions your readers have.

Most of my doubts got clarified as I went through your answers. No problem Misha, glad it helped! And this post is broscience all the way. Just eat and lift heavy. My legs could use a lot more work though. I looking to gain another 10 to 15 pounds of muscle. I train for strength as well for definition.

You may not be a hardgainer at all, just a poor eater! You sounds like a good fit for this program, yeah. We can definitely bulk up the stilts, and nothing will do a better job of giving you a strong balanced physique than squats and deadlifts! Hey Shane, what is your opinion on oatmass as an alternative to maltodextrin? Or, rather, blended oats, as they are essentially the same, right? This stuff is working! However, Ive gained unwanted fat in my middle section, and thighs, where that was never happening in the past.

I weigh now around lbs. I still appear skinny to most, but I may be average. Do youvthinkbthos program is right for me? Most guys have a bit of this or that mixed in, often in the form of carrying a little bit extra around the middle hehe. Now, here comes the problem: Does you guys or any one of your clients ever got ANY stretch marks on your skin due to rapid muscle building?

A lot of us ectomorphs have stretch marks from growing UPwards though. A lot of us take to puberty by rapidly shooting sky high instead of getting muscular, it seems. It awes me how much you guys are into this for us, ectomorphs.

The past two weeks I merely stood at my current weight. I want to have the leanest possible bulk ever cutting being an ectomorph? I know what you mean. By super leanly bulking you can always maintain your strength of being lean while adding on the new strength of being strong and healthy. You need to gain weight to grow, so a calorie surplus is your friend!

I like to track using the vein on my bicep. I take creatine with some food and use whey after workout but how to use dextrose and maltodextrin: Shane, I read that you use 15g of Creatine when you try to gain some weight.

Is this true or is our maximum of creatine as being an ectomorph much higher? Yeah I used to take 15g of creatine spaced out over a couple hours. Some creatine might have been flushed out, yeah. Hey Shane I wanted to know other than the days im working out and making that double dose shake, should i be having just a regular whey protein shake the days im off?

And is having all that protein healthy for you? Universal Torrent is a pretty good gainer, although once you start having several servings at once the cost quickly adds up! The maltodextrin they load the stuff with costs them pennies and costs you several dollars. I figure may as well just buy it yourself, mix your own perfect ratio, and save a bit of money. Can trim the doses down and fiddle with things if you ever decide to cut or anything.

Getting your protein from a variety of sources is best, and yep whey protein is a totally valid place to get it. I get more than enough there. Can you refresh the links of the lists of supplements please. Thanks in advance for your reach article that helps me a lot.

Lets say will I have to increase my protein intake overtime? And I also read that your body absorbs about 25g of protein in an hour so what would be the point of doubling your protein intake if it would all be converted into waste?

I am looking forward to stop drinking Gatorade as it contains quite a lot of sugars, and buy maltodextrin instead as it looks much healthier, thank you Shane for your time and keep it up! Your site is great. Thanks for the kind words Juan! Comments like yours are why I love writing blog articles so much.

Gold Standard is sweet. ON is a good company. Bananas are sweet too, and a great source of vitamins and minerals as well as being a good source of carbs. I think Gatorade is made out of sucrose, which contains fructose. Fructose is absorbed very differently from glucose and not necessarily in a beneficial way.

Not the best thing to be taking in high doses while training. I mean bananas have so many amazing things going for them. If you like the flavour of Gatorade, you could try adding a scoop of Xtend to your drink. You can buy flavouring like citric acid separately too. Yep, you can develop an intolerance from eating too much of anything, really! If your body can only absorb 25g of protein in an hour then drinking more than 25g of whey in an hour will just mean that it takes longer than an hour to digest all of the protein!

If we just peed calories out if we ate them too fast that would be the best news ever for chubby guys and gals, who, presumably, could eat entire cakes just fine so long as they ate them quickly enough. I use a protein shaker 20oz. You could drink 1 in the change room beforehand, 1 in the gym and 1 after. Thanks Shane for all the help and advice.

Can i make this with milk or is the taste not gonna be as good? Also how much milk would you use if you use 28 oz of water?

You could probably make it with milk so long as you feel good while drinking it. Could be that fat soluble vitamins, like vitamin D, work better in whole fat milk. Shane im sure you answered this somehwere but since carbo gain doesnt have a scoop how do you measure out a serving size? Or how many scoops would i use if i used the scooper from the gold whey box. The tub should have nutrition information on the side … but who weighs their food?

Right now Jared and I are trying waximaize maltodextrin is way more enjoyable — waximaize seems to be the twin of corn starch and it came with a scoop. And can you help me choose the best creatine brand?

Dextrose tastes like milk sugar, and waximaize tastes like cornstarch — up to your taste buds! Might be better for the teeth, too? Have it right after you finish your workout. That will double the dose and give you some extra calories and extra protein to play around with.

No need to double the creatine, although you could! I am 17 years of age. I know eating more and being beastlier in the kitchen is easier said than done, so just take it day by day and try to build up progressively better and better habits! After all your gains, do you still take supplements? I mean, when people reach their goals in terms of bodyweight, do they stop taking supps easily? I ask because in my country supps are overtaxed, so I see it as an investment, instead of a cheaper alternative to food.

I stress constantly about it, and I just been thinking about anything that could help me with building muscle drug-free is a go, so supplements are my first choice. Buuut… people become hostage to this shit. I wonder if it would be possible to drop naturally, with ease, them once I packed those 20 lb. Would you guys mind telling me a little about your thoughts and experiences? I used to wonder that all the time myself. Ergogenic supplements SuperPump, NO xplode, jack3d, etc: I felt like I went from being superman to a weak old man when I stopped training with them.

The homemade ones are very cheap, and, for MOST people, cheaper than their whole food equivalents. You can accomplish your gains and then use very minimal dosages or stop using them entirely. Gainers QuickMass, Serious Mass, etc: Kind of useless to begin with and massively overpriced. Food replacements, like whey protein: Stuff like fish oil you might want to take forever.

Stuff like vitamin D is tricky to get naturally, as you need to be outside a lot to encourage your body to synthesize enough of it. Most people need to supplement with it or drink milk, which is fortified with it.

Anyway, the short answer to your question is no: If nutritious whole food is cheaper and more accessible for you and you have the appetite to eat it then you could forget about supplements altogether! Good luck gaining your final 20!! Supplements are still cheaper than most whole foods, but not as cheap as you might think.

It is still cheaper taking malto than buying whole food price per calorie , but in the specific case of whey and pre-wo, they are way off the range. Yeah, that helped a lot! So, did you stop taking supps entirely now that you reached your final weight? I really like it, and I like having goals to work towards. I still take supplements. It sounds like things are different where you live — I do know that food in Canada is expensive relative to other countries — but whey here in Toronto is muuuch cheaper than, say, chicken breasts, steak or ground meat.

If you call it a supplement I also absolutely adore coffee! I have a nice hot mug before pretty much every workout and love it pretty heartily.

As for your creatine questions: Not everyone gets water retention from creatine. All the extra muscle you built while on it … that will stay. How much lean mass can you expect to gain? I went in an added a bunch of studies to the creatine section today. Well, that was the original plan. To be completely honest, I did take around g of malto after workout days for a few weeks and gained some weight.

Not that much, though, never passed on my max weight. Maybe 1 or 2 lbs. VERY slowly, way slower than I would see elsewhere. One thing is the scale moving slowly, other thing is the scale not moving at all! Had problems with whey concentrate, might try isolate. Focus on moving up your weight on the scale each week instead i. Now that you have my info, my questions: Do you recommend otherwise, and how many servings per day and when is the best time? Please mention the creatine servings too.

I noticed last year, although not sure, that briefly taking Whey with milk induced mildish stomach pains. Also, how much cardio should I do? Is a minute session good enough? I usually go start with 1 set wide pull-ups, 1 set push-ups, then 1 set dumb-bell chest-press, 1 set crunches. REST, repeat 3 times. I substitute the chest-press with the lat pulldown on alternate days, and also include bicep curls, and traps sometimes, and holding a dumbbell while squatting.

What do you suggest overall, and how is my plan looking? Where would I be in 3 months? You live in a place where you pretty much only have access to fish, green vegetables and eggs? Sounds like some sort of super-health haven! As for creatine, you want around 6g a day. Your body needs about 3g per day, but we lose a few grams when we take it. We do some dynamic stretches, a few mobility drills and practice our lifting technique at the beginning of every training session.

Different programs are constructed in different ways. As for a specific workout program for you, I would follow one made by an expert! You could use our program which I obviously think is the best one out there ever , or any other number of great programs out there. Definitely thinking about joining the program but have some questions about what I can expect in your program. Nevermind — the email bounced from the account you have attached to your comment.

Shoot us an email at us bonytobeastly. Hey shane i was wondering how many scoops of the carbo gain using the scooper from the gold standard whey is equivalent to 1 serving?

If i am trying to put on a good amount of weight do you sugesst using the 3x dose? A whey scoop holds about 30g 24 of which is protein. For every nice full scoop of whey you put in the drink, put 2 kind of wimpy scoops of maltodextrin in. As for how much you should take, I would let your abs decide.

I handle them well, as do most naturally lean super skinny dudes, so a triple dose works well for me. Start with a single, scale it up. Thanks a lot man that def helps…Il be putting in 4 wimpy scoops of cargo gain then for a double dose! Are you drinking this concoction only on workout days? If so, does this mean your daily caloric intake swings quite a bit between workout days vs. Yes and often yes! We seem to respond pretty well to cycling carbs and calories.

You could skip a snack or shrink the serving sizes of some meals, etc. Excellent article with studies. I read most of them and went out to buy the 8 lbs of Maltodextrin.

I went to research more into Maltodextrin and came across this study http: Our diets DO affect our gut flora, and the healthier and more balanced our diet tends to be the healthier and more resilient that flora tends to be.

WebMD is telling me that these foods commonly cause symptoms to flare up:. Currently, it is unclear how environmental factors contribute to the development of disease.

Dietary studies in both mouse models and humans demonstrate large shifts in the composition of the microbiota dependent on diet [16], [25], [26], [27]. Likewise, human studies comparing obese and lean twin pairs demonstrated changes in Bacteroidetes prevalence and a decrease in microbial diversity in obese individuals [47].

The last line says: If these individuals carry other risk factors for CD genetic variants of anti-bacterial response genes such as ATG16L1 or NOD2, for example , this may result in the development of disease in these susceptible individuals. These findings describe a potential disease mechanism linking the ubiquitous dietary additive MDX to microbial changes in the intestine of CD patients and suggest a novel therapeutic area for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

You are also, of course, perfectly welcome to play it safe and get your carbs from somewhere else! What changes did you make in the October update? I might have a bad memory, but could it be that you had glutamin in there before?

If so, why did you drop it? Hey LJ, the changes are prrretty small. We added in a little excerpt from Alan Aragon, explained the methods behind our madness a little more clearly, and we added in a couple more reference studies. Last month we made a slightly more significant change though — we added a TON of new studies, we switched over to recommending Amazon. Amazon is one of the few sites that stocks it. Consume lots of easily digested proteins, carbs and calories surrounding your training and in general … but still get the majority of your calories from minimally processed nutritious whole foods.

Creatine is the most powerful legal muscle-building supplement out there, and it also happens to be cheap, healthy and very very well researched for decades now. Fish oil helps you get a more balanced fat intake and it has a bunch of promising effects on your health and body composition.

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin, so taking it alongside a fat like fish oil allows it to be properly absorbed. Vitamin D fortified whole milk is another effective way to get your vitamin D in.

Anyway for now i was really hoping if you could help me anyway with some tips, having just bought some malto and whey i made my first post workout drink of double dose, and for 30 mins afterwards i felt pretty sick lol.

I train 3 times a week doing all the major compound lifts, I eat around calories a day but it seems nothing is paying off right now, being stuck at this size is becoming really disheartening, really knocking my confidence man.

I was wondering if maybe you had any tips for me, tired of being this skinny where i can see my hip bones lol. Being in the UK is great. One of the strongest and most helpful guys in the community, Steve, is British.

Yeah some people handle the drink better than others. The best thing though is to get a really firm grasp on the fundamentals of lifting and eating to build muscle. Shane I think you saved my life… I started bodybuilding a few times, never really bulk any weight… So this time I was determined to use steroids… Gladly I found your website. Now I would have a question… In my country gainers are much more cheaper than protein, so I will use Serious Mass.

The serving size is gr. Could you tell me please how much sould I take during a day, and if I must take-it in non-workout days too? I have some financiar issues, but when I will overcome those, definitely I will sign up for your program. Gainers are usually cheaper than protein but more expensive than maltodextrin. Buying protein and maltodextrin and mixing it up yourself is often cheaper. Definitely the same idea — the ingredients in Serious Mass are first maltodextrin and second protein albeit a blend.

Whole foods will be markedly better. I just noticed the new pictures that u put up of yourself.. I wud also like to share that i gained 5 more kgs since i last messaged you so i weigh in at My aim is muscle gain especially in the arms. Can i mix whey or a protein blend and mix it up with milk, bananas and peanut butter to achieve the same effect as Serious Mass? Have you used Serious Mass or Combat before? Musclepharm Combat 4lbs blend or Serious Mass 12 lbs?

Keeping in mind my aim of muscle gain and of-course cost effectiveness. Eagerly waiting for your reply. No, the effect would be different. Weight gainers do work for ectomorphs — they provide carbs, protein and calories, after all.

Man, I felt like such crap after taking them. Bananas are badass at building muscle. Same deal with peanuts and milk — totally badass in all kinds of subtle ways in addition to being great sources of macronutrients and calories.

As for gaining in your arms, stay tuned! A lot of us skinny guys have long lanky arms and struggle with catching them up myself included , even after gaining a bunch of proportional weight. Thanx a lot man! Whey Protein Hydrolysate hydrolyzed whey This form of way has been pre-digested broken down to enhance absorption rates by the body and promote a greater insulin spike.

Concentrate is the cheapest, most widely available, and provides the best flavor of the 3 types. When looking to purchase a new tub of protein powder there are several things to consider: Added ingredients sweeteners, fillers, amino acids.

So make sure to pick a powder suitable to your goals. Ideally, you want the ingredient label on your tub to be rather minimal. Next would be the artificial sweeteners and flavorings sucralose, cocoa powder, etc. Finally, various thickeners and digestive enzymes will be listed xanthan gum, cellulose gum, Protease A-S, lactase to give texture and increase absorption by the body. If you start see individual amino acids listed such as l-glutamine or creatine, proceed with caution!

Basically, the added aminos artificially inflate the protein content of your powder and your scoop may claim on the label to provide 24 grams of protein when it actually only contains grams. Whey protein is already a complete protein, there is no need to see any of these additional free-form amino acids listed. When and How Much?

There are a number of delicious ways to utilize protein powder from smoothies to pancakes to muffins! Takeaway Whether your goals are muscle gain or fat loss, protein is critical, and whey protein is an effective supplement to add to your arsenal. Home Categories Protein Whey Protein. Whey Protein Powder Reviews. Complete source of protein Quickly absorbed by the body Maintains lean muscle mass Enhances immune system Increases anabolic response Easy and convenient to use What is Whey Protein and Where does it come from?

Types of Whey Protein There are a variety of different types of whey, and they are differentiated by the way they are processed: This is a great option for those who are lactose-intolerant Whey Protein Hydrolysate hydrolyzed whey This form of way has been pre-digested broken down to enhance absorption rates by the body and promote a greater insulin spike.

What to look for? What to watch out for? Showing product reviews from: All Time Last 12 Months Le développement des activités tertiaires au détriment des activités primaires et secondaires dans les pays industrialisés a augmenté les besoins de traitement de l'information et de communication des entreprises [ 43 ].

De nombreuses petites et moyennes entreprises PME ont participé à cette étude [ 45 ]. Croissance, emplois et productivité dans le secteur tertiaire: L'augmentation du niveau d'éducation a favorisé l'utilisation d' ordinateurs personnels et de logiciels plus ou moins complexes par un pourcentage croissant de la population [ 47 ]. Les collectivités locales investissent dans la formation sur les TIC pour améliorer la compétitivité des entreprises de leurs territoires [ 48 ].

Les mêmes outils de TIC sont utilisés aussi bien dans le domaine professionnel que dans le domaine privé, ce qui entraîne à la fois un brouillage de la frontière entre ces deux domaines et une stimulation pour se doter de ces outils de TIC [ 49 ] , [ 50 ] , [ 51 ].

La distribution des dépenses par les ménages a sensiblement évolué avec une part croissante de dépenses pour les TIC, même dans les milieux populaires, avec en conséquence une réduction d'autres types de dépenses par exemple, réduction d'achats de journaux , de magazines , de CD Ce phénomène a été analysé par l'agence Aravis [ 53 ] à partir des statistiques sur les dépenses des ménages.

Les résultats montrent que [ 54 ]: Les terminaux des TIC à haut débit ordinateurs personnels et téléphones 3G sont de plus en plus utilisés pour la radio et la télévision en lieu et place des terminaux traditionnels spécifiques à chaque catégorie d' audiovisuel.

La possibilité de voir des émissions de télévision en mode différé catch-up TV ou replay et d'écouter des émissions de radio en mode différé par le téléchargement podcast augmente considérablement la gamme de ce qu'on peut voir ou entendre. En particulier, les jeunes de 14 à 24 ans veulent pouvoir consommer leurs émissions préférées n'importe quand, n'importe où et sur n'importe quel écran [ 57 ].

Le streaming est de plus en plus utilisé, ce qui fait reculer le téléchargement illégal [ 58 ]. Des projets sont réalisés pour utiliser les TIC pour lutter contre l'isolement des séniors, par exemple le projet Monalisa [ 59 ]. La possibilité d'intervenir en temps réel dans les débats et forums apporte un nouveau degré de participation des consommateurs. Grâce au web 2. La rapide augmentation de la capacité des processeurs loi de Moore et la rapide augmentation de la capacité des artères de transmission avec la généralisation des fibres optiques ont entraîné une chute des coûts unitaires des services de communications et surtout une généralisation progressive des systèmes d' accès à Internet à haut débit.

La numérisation de toutes les informations de toute nature: Cette caractéristique est d'autant plus importante que ces infrastructures sont caractérisées par des coûts fixes élevés et des coûts marginaux faibles. Cela a entraîné un profond bouleversement des modèles économiques des opérateurs de télécommunications. En quinze ans, le marché des TIC a été bouleversé, d'abord avec l'essor phénoménal de la téléphonie mobile et de l'Internet fixe à haut débit, puis récemment avec l'Internet mobile à haut débit, ce qui caractérise l'étape majeure de la convergence des technologies du traitement de l'information et de la communication.

L'évolution des coûts des systèmes des TIC et le développement de la concurrence avec l'émergence nouveaux fournisseurs de service ont favorisé l'essor spectaculaire des offres commerciales des services de l'information et de la communication.

Cet essor est caractérisé par des bouquets de service avec des tarifs forfaitaires abordables incluant généralement des appels téléphoniques illimités, un accès à l'Internet à haut débit et un accès à des chaînes de télévision [ 61 ].

L'objectif des opérateurs de télécommunications n'est plus de vendre des minutes de communications, mais de la bande passante et des services à valeur ajoutée. La part des revenus des opérateurs de télécommunications venant de la téléphonie vocale est en baisse constante alors que la part des revenus venant des services de données et de l'Internet est en hausse constante.

Au nivaux économique, les indicateurs des TIC sont divisés en quatre grandes catégories: Ces quatre grandes catégories mentionnées sont l'objet des résultats de recherche obtenus par le Partenariat sur la mesure des TIC au service du développement lancé en juin Il est donc important que le développement des TIC soit mesuré par un ensemble d'indicateurs prenant en compte tous les éléments essentiels des TIC et l'accès aux services Internet à haut débit en particulier.

Le nombre total d'internautes dans le monde passera, toujours selon les estimations, le cap des 2,7 milliards fin Dans les pays en développement, il aura plus que triplé entre et pour dépasser le chiffre de 1,8 milliard [ 62 ]. Et rien ne semble devoir arrêter la croissance future du trafic IP: Cette croissance phénoménale est alimentée par l'augmentation du nombre de personnes et d'appareils connectés et par la généralisation de contenus en ligne abondants, diversifiés et, dans la plupart des cas, gratuits [ 62 ].

Parallèlement, à l'heure actuelle, l'internet haut-débit reste financièrement inaccessible pour les pays en développement [ 63 ]. De même que l'accès à internet reste aussi inaccessible aux personnes en situation d' illectronisme , ceci pose le problème de la fracture numérique. L' UIT Union Internationale des Télécommunications est l'institution spécialisée des Nations unies pour les questions relatives aux technologies de l'information et de la communication TIC. L'UIT fournit le système de statistiques sur les TIC qui est le plus complet et le plus fiable en raison des contributions des ministères et autorités de régulation de tous les pays membres [ 64 ].

Les statistiques collectées et distribuées par l'UIT sont relatives aux domaines suivants:. Le site de l' UIT fournit un ensemble de définitions des concepts et des indicateurs caractérisant les Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication [ 65 ] , [ 66 ] , [ 67 ]. Par ailleurs, l'UIT commercialise une base de données sur support informatique ou sur support papier fournissant les données historiques annuelles pour une centaine d'indicateurs caractérisant les TIC pour les pays membres de l'UIT [ 75 ].

En , il y avait plus de 2,4 milliards de téléphones cellulaires, tablettes et PC vendus dans le monde. De plus, au cours de la même année, millions de tablettes ont été achetées et millions d'ordinateurs portables. Cette structure a été lancée en juin , et se compose des membres suivants: L'objectif de ce Partenariat est d'homogénéiser le choix des indicateurs fondamentaux relatifs aux TIC et de proposer des définitions standard de façon à éviter l'incohérence des appellations et des définitions des indicateurs publiés précédemment à travers le monde et selon les différentes institutions.

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