Dr. Fuhrman’s Aggregate Nutrient Density Index (ANDI)
Bit tricky to spin this one our way. What is the common denominator of Africa to them? I am glad you're enjoying the program: I am doing it as follows: Written by admin View all posts by:
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Because you and him have none. Greater diversity of Africa means that if some plague is going to come as a result of dancing with dead corpses in Madagascar or eating humans in Botswana for some medical purposes that is going to wipe out a lot of people it is possible it will wipe out all Nigerians and Kenyans but there might be a chance that Pygmy will survive because they are sufficiently more different from Nigerians and Kenyans.
Only in this sense some Africans may survive. It does not mean that Afrosapience will survive. But there are some genes that Europeans are more diverse.
One day we will not for sure but in the meantime there is zero evidence that Africans are smarter than Europeans or Asians. Yes, I met some Blacks for whom the fact of not having Neanderthal genes gives them some sense of superiority. I wonder how widely this meme is spread among AA Blacks and Africans? They were not like trekkers migrating over long distances on purpose, they were just nomads seizing hunting and gathering opportunities.
They had no maps, no awareness of landforms, they were moving in random directions, which lead some to leave Africa to Arabia and then the rest of Eurasia and the Americas, others moved to Western Africa, by chance.
I doubt the supremacy of lawyers over American policies causes the inequalities. A large share of the whites oppose social programs for fear that it benefits blacks and immigrants. Race struggle took over class struggle. Diversity means that there are more variants which are unique to Africans than to non-Africans. It also means that Africans are more often heterozygote, which protects against harmful recessive alleles.
The Republicans will occasionally put up someone who has scientific training, but not often. I use an incognito window for the search completion test not for my typical browsing because Google customizes its completion results. That way I get a result that is more likely to be representative of what others see.
That sentence is almost true. Every lawyer is not always right, just like you. I suppose I should realize that anyone who would write a sentence like yours is an idiot who does not deserve to be taken seriously. Given that I supplied you with a link to the full text for the paper underlying my argument as you requested I am surprised not to see a response. See Table 1 in https: Look, I have wasted enough time with you and your cold winters fantasy tales. The evidence that Africans have less genetic load, cognition genes included, is here and all we have to do is to deal with the facts whether we like it or not.
Some people want to be proud of something. I do not think that pride is a necessary ingredient for a human soul that everybody needs. Happy well adjusted people do not need pride. In fact pride is a toxic ingredient.
After all superbia pride is the seventh mortal sin for a good reason. From the psychological angle one can see that pride serves to compensate or mask some perceived deficits in other areas. When I was growing up in Europe utterances using this pattern were completely unknown.
Did it come from the special education classes to make the special kids feel good? Is that where Blacks are getting it from? Anyway, I felt kind of sorry as well as embarrassed for the Black guy I met who felt proud that he did not have Neanderthal genes unlike me.
Likewise I should feel sorry for A-something or O-something when they clearly derive some degree of pride from the fact that Africa has larger genetic diversity than Europe or Asia. It is interesting because it is clearly an expression of continental nationalism if not chauvinism. What about galactic pride? What is the common denominator of Africa to them? If Africa is so diverse A-something or O-something might be more distant from each other than say from some southern Europeans in some genetic respects.
So, the common denominator must be the external phenotype, i. And this you get from people who will fight you tooth and nail that race does not exist. And then you hear this: To quote from the report,. These problem-solving skills are key to success in all pursuits, and can be developed in school through curricular subjects. Can memory and rote learning solve non-traditional problems? Results show that students in Singapore and Korea, followed by students in Japan, score higher in problem solving than students in all other participating countries and economies.
This topic can be a major study by itself, but here only the relative results are shown. The general results for creative problem solving on static and vague interactive problems are the same. Thus only the results of interactively solving the ill defined problems are shown here. The extreme cases considered were from PISA the percentages of students in each country who have more than 4 hours of off-school Maths lessons per week.
There was no data for Singapore. First beside Korea at rank 2 with Now in real life students normally will stop having extra tuitions if they are not effective. Thus it is normally because of poor performance that requires tuition, otherwise there could be the interpretation of extra tuitions dumbing down the students. In the main the plot supported this reasoning. From the plot it become clear there might not be much values for Koreans, Turks, Isrealis, HongKongers, Macaoists and Taiwaneses to have too much extra tuitions, they were more or less locked into arm races which they could not jump out and without much value addition.
Japanese with little extra tuitions was performing better than them. Elsewhere in the PISA report asserted that most of the East Asians gained their knowledge during regular school hours. The data have to be extracted from the questionaires dataset and this might not worth the effort. The relationship TuteGt4 and CPS scores is statistically significant only when those outliers are removed. So why are all those whinges when extra tuitions do not seem to have conferred much extra advantages?
So no response to that paper I gave you in response to your request. Now we know what you do when you are wrong. All these enormous resources invested into raising intelligence and we wind up talking about 1 IQ point? How many trillions of dollars of year does this cost? Of course, with genetic enhancement it is already clear that we could increase human IQ over points, and the intelligence increasing benefits would continue generation after generation for eternity.
Cost estimates for increasing IQ by points already appear to be within range of middle income families in developed nations. When the technology is introduced the IQ gap between nations with economic resources and those without could become at least temporarily overwhelming.
If increasing intelligence through genetic enhancement is thought of being so morally reprehensible, then why do we spend all those trillions of dollars a year and spend all those decades of our lives learning in order to increase our IQs?
Is there research into the possibility of increasing intelligence past adolescence or early adulthood? From what I understand the literature suggests that brain development continues perhaps into the mids, though I would think that life-long brain development is a possibility. The evidence that learning helps prevent dementia has been accumulating for some time. Enriched environment as a technique to positively change neuroanatomy has been ongoing for a very long time.
Why were the SNP not identified and included in the article? He pathetically missed his target because no matter who is genetically advantaged, I do not believe in genetic determinism. I have not figured it out. The idea of whiteness is a recent and primarily American construct. But you sure as hell have always been proud of your various tribes, nationalities, ethnicities and religious traditions.
Similarly, black conscientiousness is an alien concept in Africa with the exception of those areas where white supremacists constructed a caste system with themselves on top. Obviously, you could never have black power fist pumpers like Stephen Biko or Nelson Mandela in Nigeria.
You can have all the races you want. But nobody has butchered each other more than than the relatively inbred and bottlenecked Europeans. I have very dark almost black and very light almost white people in my immediate family. And, of course, a wide spectrum in between. I have more skin color diversity in my family alone than exists in all of white Europe. Previous studies of genetic and craniometric traits have found higher levels of within-population diversity in sub-Saharan Africa compared to other geographic regions.
This study examines regional differences in within-population diversity of human skin color. Published data on skin reflectance were collected for 98 male samples from eight geographic regions: Regional differences in local within-population diversity were examined using two measures of variability: For both measures, the average level of within-population diversity is higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other geographic regions. This difference persists even after adjusting for a correlation between within-population diversity and distance from the equator.
Though affected by natural selection, skin color variation shows the same pattern of higher African diversity as found with other traits. Most people associate Africans with dark skin. But different groups of people in Africa have almost every skin color on the planet, from deepest black in the Dinka of South Sudan to beige in the San of South Africa.
Now, researchers have discovered a handful of new gene variants responsible for this palette of tones. The study, published online this week in Science, traces the evolution of these genes and how they traveled around the world. While the dark skin of some Pacific Islanders can be traced to Africa, gene variants from Eurasia also seem to have made their way back to Africa. And surprisingly, some of the mutations responsible for lighter skin in Europeans turn out to have an ancient African origin.
In South Africa, a rare group of children unknowingly find themselves resistant to the effects of HIV. Even without antiretroviral treatment, they will never develop AIDS, or so scientists believe. Unlike adults and other children who succumb to the virus if not treated — enabling it to attack their immune cells and weakening their immunity to disease — these kids harbor huge amounts of HIV within their blood but remain unscathed.
Diversity … It also means that Africans are more often heterozygote, which protects against harmful recessive alleles. Africans are diverse because their social and political arrangements have, until very recent times, been organized on a tribal basis. Africa, the least urbanized continent, has a population comprising many relatively homogeneous inbreeding groups, which are less, not more, heterzygous than the population of the European and North American cities now filled with immigrants from throughout the world.
Thus most Africans still possess a genetic constitution representative of a tribe, rather than a continental or transcontinental outbred population.
Belonging to inbreeding tribes, i. Inbreeding limits the frequency of detrimental genes, i. Outbreeding increases the genetic load because detrimental recessive genes are more likely to be masked by good alleles. However, that means that the genetic load in outbreeding populations increases over time.
Outbreeding populations thus go through a period of hybrid vigor, evident in the early stages of urbanization first in Europe, then the Americas, Japan, the Asian Tigers, now China and in the future, presumably, Africa. A downside to outbreeding is that desirable gene groupings, resulting from various selective pressures, e. A further downside to outbreeding is that the hybrid vigor that characterizes outbreeding populations initially, gradually fades, leaving a population lacking either unique local adaptation or unusual energy, but possessing a higher genetic load than the inbred populations from which it has been derived.
The impact of inbreeding on reproduction, childhood mortality, and Mendelian disorders is well documented. This is despite the fact that inbreeding may have a greater influence on late onset traits than on traits that are subject to early selection.
Characterization of Greater Middle Eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery Here we generated a whole-exome GME variome from 1, unrelated subjects. We detected substantial diversity and admixture in continental and subregional populations, corresponding to several ancient founder populations with little evidence of bottlenecks.
Despite millennia of elevated rates of consanguinity in the GME, we detected no evidence for purging of recessive alleles. Instead, we detected large, rare homozygous blocks, distinct from the small homozygous blocks found in other populations , supporting the occurrence of recent consanguineous matings and allowing the identification of genes harboring putatively high-impact homozygous variants in healthy humans from this population.
If you have inbreeding, you bring together deleterious recessive alleles, and so they get exposed to selection. In this way you can purge the segregating genetic load. It works with plants. But humans, and complex animals in general, are not plants. Middle Easterners should stop marrying cousins to reduce the disease load. Some of these nations, like Qatar, have a lot of money to throw at Mendelian diseases.
A heterozygote advantage describes the case in which the heterozygous genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype.
The specific case of heterozygote advantage due to a single locus is known as overdominance. Polymorphism can be maintained by selection favoring the heterozygote, and this mechanism is used to explain the occurrence of some kinds of genetic variability.
A common example is the case where the heterozygote conveys both advantages and disadvantages, while both homozygotes convey a disadvantage. A well-established case of heterozygote advantage is that of the gene involved in sickle cell anaemia. Often, the advantages and disadvantages conveyed are rather complicated, because more than one gene may influence a given trait or morph.
Major genes almost always have multiple effects pleiotropism , which can simultaneously convey separate advantageous traits and disadvantageous traits upon the same organism. Previous research, comparing measures of dominance, overdominance and epistasis mostly in plants , found that the majority of cases of heterozygote advantage were due to complementation or dominance , the masking of deleterious recessive alleles by wild-type alleles, as discussed in the articles Heterosis and Complementation genetics , but there were also findings of overdominance, especially in rice.
Genomic Patterns of Homozygosity in Worldwide Human Populations Per-individual total lengths of class A and class B ROH that reflect LD patterns are lowest in populations from Africa, rising in a stepwise fashion in successive continental groups and having relatively similar values within continents.
This finding can be explained as a consequence of a serial-migration model outward from Africa; each migration decreases effective population size, generating LD, reducing haplotype diversity, and increasing the probability that identical copies of the same long haplotype will pair together in the same individual.
The per-individual total lengths of class C ROH, which result largely from inbreeding, do not follow such a pattern and are instead most frequent in populations where isolation and consanguineous unions are more common. The different continental patterns observed for different ROH classes therefore reflect the distinct forces generating ROH of different sizes. It is outbreeding among formerly inbreeding populations that results in to high heterozygosity.
So yes, where Africans from all over the continent get together and interbreed you have high heterozygosity. But most Africans are still visibly members of distinct tribes.
I seem to remember receiving an A or maybe it was an A minus — memory is said to be untrustworthy on such details for an essay I wrote, God knows how long ago, that dealt with this question. What I concluded, based on some rough and ready calculations, was that inbreeding does not purge lethal recessive genes entirely, although it must obviously keep the frequency in check since the homozygote is, well, lethal. The Passenger pigeon, of which there were several billions in North America prior to the arrival of the white man, was highly genetically homogeneous.
That, it has been postulated, was the reason it failed to survive the presence of men with guns. It had one genetically determined mode of existence, with no options to survive a change in environment. Humanity, under the whip of the globalist elite seems headed the way of the Passenger pigeon: To mention the undesirability of the ongoing globalist project for the genocide of national groups particularly the Europeans is, of course taboo, and will generate a paeon of contemptuous ridicule and hate speech from brainwashed biological illiterates.
Such was the confusion that existed with humans after leaving Africa for tens of thousands of years. The humans that left Africa were essentially exiles.
They had been evicted from the Promised Land. The vast void that they confronted once leaving would have felt infinite. The one organizing force would have been to diffuse to lower density as would occur with Brownian motion. Such random low density particles do not congeal into anything more interesting.
Neither did humans for tens of thousands of years. Your depiction of the random Brownian motion of the first humans Out of Africa was very compelling for me. I think that such a description has substantial explanatory power for much of how human history has unfolded over the last , or more years.
As humans gradually journeyed out of Africa, there would have been this enormous almost endless landscape to fill. Just imagine what it must have been like! Whenever any population density arose some of the people would likely have decided to pack up and move on. Such an environment would have made almost any sense of community or the state essentially impossible. There are many barren polar regions of the world that have never managed to establish any meaningful social cohesion.
Consider what happens on a crowded bus. As soon as someone gets off, someone standing will take the seat. Once everyone standing is seated people will start moving as far away from others as they can. Something similar would have happened with humans over the last many tens of thousands of years.
Under such a scenario it is not surprising in the least that we only see the emergence of any meaningful degree of social organization starting about 10, years ago. This is a testable idea as genetic samples from humans years ago have been found. Yet with Africa a meaningful density effect has probably been operating for upwards of 50, years. There should exist deep cultural traditions that have developed possibly over the span of tens of thousands of years. Leaving such a homeland for the barrens must have been difficult.
Africa has its dangers though think of all the entirely novel dangers that would be encountered when leaving and think of leaving what would have been the center of human culture and technology. Encountering other humanoids with possibly higher cognitive ability would have been one such surprise faced by those leaving Africa. The problem time and time again in psychometrics is that by only looking at a very brief interval of time the powerful role of the environment can be ignored which then transfers the load to genetics.
This would all to obvious if one were to jump into a time machine and go back in time or years. As we move to an idealized future of a constant environment everything could be loaded on genetics. In that book the author suggests that what we understand as human consciousness Theory of Mind emerges only relatively recently perhaps years ago. If the nature of human contact has been as limited as the above discussion suggests then such a recent emergence of humanness might not be so far fetched.
In fact when first contact was made with some isolated human populations even a few centuries ago one might have observed such an absence of a Theory of Mind in these peoples. Many on this blog are likely not big fans of big government or the deep state, though imagine what life would be like without it. Before about years ago, there are no constructions of collective human effort that can be found.
It took humans almost 50, years to get it together! It is only after we organized and systematized our world that we have been able to make any forward progress. I suppose, though that the counter argument would be that the state is not so much an instrument of progress as a parasite living off the benefits that accrue from human civilization.
You keep getting your metaphors wrong. If anything they got evicted from the Eden and they went to the Promised Land. The ones who remained in the Eden did so because they remained ignorant, they did not eat the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge.
Sexual selection presumably continues to play some role in human evolution, although cosmetic surgery, acquisition of wealth, and other factors may relax this as well. For example, although it has been argued that female choice for healthy males may aid in reducing the mutation load Whitlock and Agrawal , the strength of such reinforcement would also be diminished in human populations where suboptimal male phenotypes are hidden by various medical procedures.
Thus, without any compelling counterarguments at this time, it remains difficult to escape the conclusion that numerous physical and psychological attributes are likely to slowly deteriorate in technologically advanced societies, with notable changes in average preintervention phenotypes expected on a timescale of a few generations, i.
In the United States, the incidences of a variety of afflictions including autism , male infertility, asthma, immune-system disorders, diabetes, etc. Another way of reducing mutational load in a gene pool would be for high-mutational-load individuals, voluntarily, to choose not to have any offspring.
Is this perhaps what the Hajnal line is all about? PIQ could thus be considered a clinical marker of this increased mutational burden in females. Were and are these individuals, due to their higher IQs, doing a conscious service and sacrifice for their nations and fellow citizens, family members, etc.
Good that you are trying to clarify the confusion sown by the semi-educated with the heterozygosity fetish. Let me add this:. Genetic diversity and heterozygosity are not the same things unless the population is in the Hardy-Weinstein equilibrium. Two populations may have the same genetic diversities but different heterozygosities because of, say different levels of inbreeding. This is fairly simple to see when only two alleles are considered.
In cases of many alleles it is more complicated. It is possible to have a population with higher heterozygosity that has lower allelic richness which is the average number of alleles per locus. Which of the two population is more genetically diverse? The measure of genetic diversity is 2pq which also is the frequency of heterozygosity in Hardy-Weinstein equilibrium. Population that is less genetically diverse, i.. Then there is a difference of between the actual and expected heterozygosity.
Not always heterozygosity is measured directly. Rather it is estimated from frequencies p and q and expressed as 2pq that presupposes the Hardy-Weinstein equilibrium. The bottom line is that the highest genetic diversity is reached when alleles are distributed uniformly, i. In less diverse populations that are below the maximum diversity one allele will have larger frequency than others. If it happens that this more frequent allele is beneficial, this population will have an advantage over the population that has maximum genetic diversity where this beneficial allele has the same frequency as the non beneficial alleles.
In other words high genetic diversity does not imply advantage. If there are genes that are responsible for intelligence, the least genetically diverse population that maximizes the frequencies of these genes will have the highest average intelligence. The average intelligence of the most genetically diverse population will be merely average. Afro talked about me using the fallacy of Modern retrospection. Those on this blog are better than I am at naming the fallacies of argumentation, though I think the true fallacy at play here is the 21st Century New Age Presumption Fallacy.
This fallacy would claim that people 1, years, 10, years or 50, years ago were mostly just like us. The Origins of Consciousness book that I noted above proposed that people even into the era of recorded history were still making the transition to a modern conception of consciousness. The idea that I am suggesting is that at the time when people first began exploring out of Africa some conception of consciousness was emerging in Africa.
Developing such a sense of consciousness would be greatly helped by the presence of other people. In the modern world people living on a deserted island who at least had a television could at least have some conception of what modern living is all about.
What opportunities for ongoing learning would have been available to the peoples of the 30, years ago living in some desolute barren void outside of Africa? Population densities for most of this New World must have been near zero. Therefore, if I were to be transported back to that time I would want to head to Africa because that would have clearly been the center of human civilization.
I have a near omniscient perspective to make this assessment and my best estimate would be that I would head back to the homeland as long as my human rights as a nerd were fully respected. I would have done my best to have floated a Quantum computer IPO and made a few billion.
Admittedly there would not have been much to work with, though there would at least have been something. For at least the next tens of thousands of years there would be essentially nothing remarkable to report in any other area of the world. In fact it is truly very startling to realize that it is only now- at this very moment- after tens of thousands of years of that China has finally clicked into gear and is about to crank it up and super-turbo charge human civilization.
This in spite of the fact that it has been understood by many for as long as perhaps over a century that China had the inherent psychometric potential to make this happen. Tragically, North Korea with the same raw potential has not been able to transition into behaving in a likewise constructive manner. Building nuclear ICBMs instead of building a modern economy is such an overwhelmingly misguided policy choice. With the extremely low population densities that could be supported in all of the Nations of the North, there simply was nearly none of the elements necessary to spark a revolution of any kind scientific, literary, or otherwise.
It can thus be hardly surprising that some of the first glimpses of an emergence of human civilization was at the very doorstep of the exit route from Africa. For all the tens of thousands of years before, humans had been entirely unable to create any meaningful level of social organization. If I had lived in some empire to the North and East of the Levant and there were had been some effort to conscript me to build a pyramid or fight in an army then I would have went on a vacation someplace farther afield to the North and East.
It looks like what might have happened is that those who used this strategy eventually were corralled by geography into India and China. Nonetheless a strategy of simply moving along instead of dealing with the demands of other people would have nearly stopped any coalescing of group behavior.
Human behavior and most of human civilization behaved very much like Brownian motion. Such random diffusion seeking behavior stopped the emergence of anything that we would understand as modern for tens of thousands of years.
In fact it has only been over the span of the last few centuries since the Industrial Revolution, that a clearly obvious technological phase transition has occurred. For which reason the Fabian socialist, novelist, friend of FDR and Joe Stalin, and advocate of Eugenics, had a contempt for people with false teeth, corrective eyeglasses, etc. Marie Stopes, the British advocate of birth control and a eugenicist, disinherited her son for marrying a woman who wore glasses. One approach would be to have a restricted right to reproduce, which would be transferable among family members.
Thus, someone with a gene for some genetic defect could pass their license to reproduce to a sibling free of the defective gene. The sibling might then pass back the child for adoption. That way, family relationships among the generations would be maintained, but serious genetic defects would be minimized.
In general, however, economic well-being is perhaps as good a measure of fitness for existence in the environment in the current stage of economic development is wealth even though there are many wealthy people who should have been strangled at birth and many paupers of exceptional intellectual or moral worth. That being the case, tax laws etc. As this is the opposite of current policy in seemingly all Western nations, which suggests that societal collapse looms, due to genetic decline.
One could define genetic diversity that way. But what is normally understood by the term would be measured by the diversity of alleles.
Rozanne, the Afghan wife of Alexander the Great, likely had green eyes , in which case, Alexander likely thought a valuable addition to the diversity of his genetic line.
Population is most diverse when alleles are uniformly distribute and more uniformly distributed alleles lead to greater diversity. The genetic diversity for one locus is defined as the average genetic distance of population to itself.
The genetic distance is the average of all distances between all pairs of individual. The distance between individuals is defined with Hamming metric, i. In case of two alleles the Hamming metric is equivalent to variance.
The definition of the fixation index Fst that was used by Lewontin is based on the Hamming metric. The question is how to define diversity when there several loci? The diversity for each locus is calculated separately and then they are averaged over all loci.
Other approach is to generalize the Hamming metric. If two individuals differ at one locus their distance is 1 and when they differ at two loci their distance is 2 and so on. Yes, you are quite correct that my above comments are quite abysmal. I realize that I am skating on thin ice, though just as it is with discussion about race when you never talk of certain things then you can live your whole life without developing a minimal competency in a subject.
On other subjects I could and have formulated much more sophisticated opinions. I have as yet not taken a course in cognitive anthropology. However, as I now read up on the development of human civilization, it appears that my broad outline is not entirely misplaced. For about 1 million of humanoid existence there apparently was almost a complete absence of any sort of technological development.
Highly skilled anthropologists would be required to differentiate a stone tool made by an ape like human, a homo erectus or a homo habillis separated in time by hundreds of thousands of years. This phase of human development called the paleolithic lasted until about 10, years. A new stone age then emerged in which small bands of hunter gathers were replaced by larger groups of settled farmers.
This neolithic age continued until about 5, years ago. Some of these neolithic peoples apparently were still present to years ago when European explorers embarked upon their world voyages. As hard as it is to believe this is the truth of human cultural development. This outline of humanity is quite consistent with my attempt to trace back the broad outline of the human story from Africa all those tens of thousands of years ago.
The near absence of any organized community until the start of the neolithic age is exactly what I had anticipated. Before this time the descriptions that I have read talk of nomadic hunter gatherers organized in bands of perhaps 20 to 30 people without property of any particular value.
It would have been an age of an essentially classless society without wealth or probably nearly any form of elaborate legal system. It is only when we reach the Neolithic that some sense of a settled community with tangible property and probably the gradual emergence of a state can we talk of a type of humanity that would be at all recognizable to us now.
The Neolithic Age ends perhaps only 5 thousand years ago and we have finally moved toward a conception of reality that would feel even vaguely plausible as an alternative lifestyle for modern people. My description in the earlier posts was not entirely off the mark. However, those who might have visions of the past in which there were even more than a very basic understanding of technology much further back than 4 or 5 thousand years would be much more off target.
Why have we made genetic diversity so complex? When I used this term before I only meant that the relatively small group who left Africa only contained a small subset of the variants that were present in the African population at that time.
I was not thinking in terms of genetic diversity as referring to frequencies of individual genotypes in the way that it is now being described. The outstanding question that should be of interest to many on this blog is what might this diversity which has possibly as yet not been fully explored reveal to us about variants related to traits and illnesses that are not present in non-African populations?
It does not seem far-fetched that Africans might have variants that increase or decrease intelligence which current GWAS have not unveiled as a result of mostly studying European populations. Africa has something we value and want. We should be nice and answer these questions so that everyone can gain from such knowledge. Perhaps the conception of IQ humans will be found to be an underestimate of human potential.
With the as yet uncharacterized potential of the African genome it is entirely possible that we could max out with IQ humans. By calculating how blood supply to the brains of human ancestors changed over time, the researchers were able to show that the human brain not only evolved to become larger, but also more blood-thirsty.
And the need for blood outpaced the volume increase of the brain itself. Two holes at the base of the human skull allow arteries to shuttle blood from the heart to the brain.
The diameters of the holes correspond to the size and blood-carrying capacity of the arteries. By tracking the changes in the size of those holes in human ancestors, the researchers were able to track the evolution of human intelligence. Human skulls, showing the location of two openings for the internal carotid arteries that supply the cerebrum of the brain almost entirely.
Just like we have a genetic diversity of [skin, eyes, hair] colors among europeans, not exactly because this characteristic, i believe we also will have higher cognitive genetic diversity among them than among east asians and sapienss….
The conversation has been so fixated on identifying and developing high g that cognitive reserve has been almost entirely ignored. This plasticity appears to allow for learning new subjects as a strategy for avoiding dementia. While cognitive interventions with the intent of changing psychometric g might be futile, cognitive interventions with the intent of changing the risk of dementia would not be futile.
Why has this line of argument not been more prominent in discussion of school leaving age? Choline supplements boost my memory and concentration and failing to take choline causes a decline. My comments about the broad outline of human cognitive development as we left Africa appears to have been more accurate than I would have at first understood. It does seem as though at least a moderate amount of human density was required before anything resembling modern human behavior could emerge.
This only happened about 10, years ago after the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution occurred? Before that human psychology was mostly dictated by Brownian motion? Very interesting this demographic perspective appears to have research credibility.
As the below article notes, the upper paleolithic transition transition to a modern human psychology first emerged in Africa perhaps as long as , years earlier than elsewhere in the world. Article suggests to me that demography might not only have created the brief flourishing of humanity Katanda DRC 90 kya and other sites possibly back as far kya, but perhaps also caused them to fade as populations shifted for various reasons.
I would have loved to have been there to try and have created the conditions necessary for such forerunners of human civilization to have succeeded all those years ago. Anyone else disappointed that the meandering path of demography possibly prevented us from being , years more advanced technologically than we are now? Think of how much that would be worth! The technology that would be possible , years from now should be infinite!
I think this pot is mine. One should also consider that the genetic samples that were recently analyzed for IQ SNPs suggest that humans years ago might have been in the range of genoIQ. Also consider how the neolithic human population likely impacted on human development as suggested in the model above. Notice that human population thousand years ago could be almost static for 2 -3 thousand years at a time.
We can only hope that Oke and Afro are on vacation or something. Thanks again for your comment, Best Regards, Daniel.
There is actually no need of a supplementary component as Calcium Sulfate. The necessary levels of K can be reached with Potassium Nitrate in combination with Potassium Sulphate and obviously the needed amount of Mono-potassium Phosphate which is used in order to provide the needed 50 ppm of Phosphorus.
There is actually no need to increase S to the required level - it's just a result of the use of more Potassium Sulphate. That much S is actually not required with this formulation. The calculator is indeed a bit "overwhelmed" with this kind of formula. Would you please check the input and specify? First is that there is a free hydroponic nutrient calculator at: Science in Hydroponics It is written and designed by a chemist. It's a stand alone program that is continuously getting [ Perhaps you already knew , but a molar mass calculator can be used get the mass of an element or molecule from a formula.
K2O consists of two potassium K atom and an Oxygen O. The weight of these atoms are different, and we want to know the mass of K, without the Oxygen. Use the K2O formula with the molar calc to get Use the SO3 formula in the calc to see You can even make a simple excel chart that will make it much more easier. This is a very good calculator which helps a lot if you mix your own fertilizers.
And it's also for free: Impressions after the first minute: Easier usage, it's really improved a lot! But please take out those popups between the calculations cause they are killing me even after a minute. And a possible bug: Hello Tester, Thank you for your comment: Regarding the pop-ups, I will most likely keep them there because people tend to ignore very important errors if they do not become explicitly aware of them.
I believe that any such errors should be reported to the user in a way in which knowledge by the user cannot be avoided you cannot "miss" the error as possibly very inaccurate preparations might arise from ignoring their existence. At least now people will know when problems are there and choose whether to ignore them or not: Further comments are very welcome: I will probably include an option to either enable or disable the popups when I do the next minor revision as some people might prefer not to be notified altogether: Then at least please give us the possibility to turn that off somewhere.
I'm sure it will drive other users crazy too. I usually use HydroBuddy for partial calculations, not for the full recipe, so I get about 4 popups after every calculation and even after smaller "fine tunings". Hello Tester, Thank you for your reply: I have updated HydroBuddy to v1. However fatal errors - which cause the calculation to be unable to run - will still be shown. Thanks again for helping me make the software better, Best Regards, Daniel. No Mac version available yet? If so where to find or click instead of "click here to dl Hello Jean-Luc, Thank you for your comment: If you want you can download Lazarus a free programming suite for Mac and compile the source for your machine.
If you do this it would also be great if you could send the compiled version for Mac to my email so that I can offer it as a download: An other possible problem: It looks like it calculates with anhydrides. For example in Hydrobuddy: Copper Sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4.
According to this molar mass calc http: I did not checked the other salts. I computed all those values with a website's automatic script and it seems to have ignored all hydration levels due to the dot between the main formula and the water part. I will recompute those values within the next few minutes and upload an updated copy with the updated database within the hour.
Thank you very much again for these contributions and helping me make the software better! Hello Tester, Ok, I have now uploaded v1. Thanks again for helping me make HydroBuddy better! Hi Tester, Thank you for your bug report: I have fixed this problem on v1.
Thanks again for helping me make the software better! Hi Daniel, My first impression with the new version was "wow that's cool". I like the different "tutorial" tabs on the welcome tab. Figuring out how to save a formulation is a lot easier too.
I found the shadow text harder to read, but I'm old: I did find a bug on the Substance Selection - Add Custom box. Then select my substance and click Edit Values it shows K2O as 8. I am also seeing huge differences in the results between 0. For example I put in the following test values in both versions using liters and weight in grams: The results with 0. Hi Steve, Thank you for your comment and bug reports: If I do the calculation for the ppm levels you mention with: The difference with the yara calcium nitrate might be attributed to some difference in the adjustment of salts since the new version tries to compensate errors between Ca and N while 0.
However I am never able to reproduce your KCl Please repeat this making sure you have the exact salts mentioned above and send me a pic to dfernandezp at unal. Thank you very much again for helping me make the software better!
Hello Guys, I just wanted to say that v1. This version also includes some important updates of the reporting part of the code as well as some small UI improvements. Please view the changelog text file included for more details. Thanks again for helping me make the software better: I have just uploaded the program including the missing dbf. Hello Guys, I have just uploaded a new version of HydroBuddy v1. This will allow you to get the latest HydroBuddy version without having to revisit the website every now and then to check on new releases.
This option can also be disabled on the main tab of the program. Thanks again for all of your help in debugging the software! Auto update was a great idea! There is still some label problem with P and K http: I have now corrected all K2O and P2O5 issues v1.
Let me know if you find any other nasty bugs: Please let me know if the Auto-Update works correctly: Hi Daniel, What a great software! Really appreciate your effort in developing it. I started using it from v I noticed that in the newer versions, the "concentrated type" for each substance is specified as 0, A or B i.
The results is that all substances made stock A in the earliest ver, the software check the compatibility and automatically assigned it to make either stock A or B. Sorry if this is not relevant, I'm a hydro noob.
Hello Feira, Thank you for your comment: On the previous version the software had the A,B,0 assignment "locked" inside the program and the user wasn't able to change it. Now the substance edition allows you to assign this value, a characteristic which allows the user to use new substances note that on the previous versions custom salts were NEVER used on the concentrated solution types.
Whenever a substance is added you need to specify whether it can be used on A, B or 0 concentrated solutions but the program trusts this judgement and does not look any further as the previous version did. Obviously if you change all types to A the program will simply assume that all substances go into the A solution the same with B and if you assign them all to 0 the program will assume that none of the substances can be used.
If you do not have the necessary knowledge to change the A,B,0 components of the default database then please do NOT change them as these values have been chosen according to chemical compatibility as they were on the initial versions of HydroBuddy you can always redownload the program to restore the previous DB makeup. I hope this answers your questions: Updater dies on me: Just start HydroBuddy and the autoupdater should get executed if you don't have the latest version installed.
Note that the autoupdater may still generate an error when it tries to overwrite itself but the program should still get updated correctly. Please let me know what you get when you run the updater when starting HydroBuddy. Thanks again for helping me improve the software, Best Regards, Daniel. I run the updater from CMD to see the error messages, if HydroBuddy runs it it quickly dies and I can't see what happened because the window closes itself.
Anyway the update does not happening. Hello Charles, Please download v. Daniel kudos to your hard work and passion in hydroponics, I am fairly new to hydroponic growing but I enjoy it very much, and would like to learn as much as possible in this field Hi Steven, Thank you for your comment: However to give you a small preview, there are almost no scientific studies dealing with the application of carbohydrates or amino acids to soil-less crops and the few that do exist do not show any conclusive evidence regarding a positive effect of any of this two substance groups and quite on the contrary - in the case of carbohydrates - a very detrimental effect due to the increase of pathogenic micro-flora populations.
To sum it up, you should know you're spending a lot of money on an unproven concept. I have the 0. Looks like the same problem as others have had. I have tried opening the old version to see if it will auto update and it will not. If I try to open the new version it will only open for a split second and then dissapear.
Any ideas what I am doing wrong of if somthing could be blocking it? Hello Charles, Thank you for your comment: Please download it from the website to solve the problems.
Hello Guys, I have fixed the whole updating issue currently going on and it should now be working correctly: You can test the updater - only after you have run HydroBuddy for the first time - by deleting the HydroBuddy files Except the downloaded "lastversion" file - and running the updater.
It should then download the latest version and copy it to the original folder so you should see a replacement of all the files you deleted.
I will also implement some features I have in mind. I hope you enjoy the current version of Hydrobuddy: Best Regards, Daniel PS: The update is now up: Hey Steven, Please download v1. The zip file includes the update. The uploader is ok too, it downloads the zip file. I'm curious if it will work or not when it really needs to update. Hi Daniel Your Hydrobuddy is boon to many of us here. You have done a terrific job. Thanks a million and keep up the good work.
The names of added custom substances are not shown on the "Detailed element contributons list" tab. If the custom substance you have intended to use is NOT shown it means that it is NOT contributing in anyway not used within the final solution. Please check the list of calculated weights to see if this substance shows. If it doesn't show there then everything is OK substance does not contribute if it does show then please send me an email to dfernandezp at unal.
Sorry the problem was on my end, I did not filled in the formula for the substance, and that would have been shown on the detailed element contribution list. Hi Daniel, Love the program, however i have some issues, after entering element salts i use saving them in the DB. Hi Joe, Thank you for your comment: Once a new version comes out the automatic update procedure will NOT overwrite your databases as merely update instructions will be included within the updating package. I do not understand very well your "wish list" item.
What do you mean by "include an element in the formulation that it has to use"? Currently HydroBuddy searches for the best mathematical solution to a given problem and therefore it doesn't seem to make a lot of sense to "force" the program to use a certain amount of any element as any solution obtained in this way will be different from the optimal one. Certainly you might want to explain this a little bit better as I may have misunderstood your explanation: I'm xp and windows 7 running on parallels app for the mac, both is giving me the same problem with problem opening the update.
Hello Steven, Thank you for your comment: Bear in mind that I do not have a Mac or parallels so I cannot provide support for this type of crossover software. If you would like to use the program on a Mac then the best thing should be to compile binaries for your operating system using Lazarus' Mac version. I would love to help you do this but since I do not have access to a Mac I simply cannot get this done.
If you want to use the program's current binary then please do so on a windows native computer. Hello Joe, Thank you for your comment: What do you mean by "organic bases"? Please send me an email to dfernandezp at unal. I will be happy to implement the feature you want once you explain it to me in a way in which I can understand it. I'd also find it useful to have the possibility to force the program to use the given substances, even if there are better ways to reach the closest nutrient content.
For example when I have a custom fertilizer substance that also contains triacontanol, and I want to use that in a mix, but Hydrobuddy would not want to use it because it thinks it's better to supply the whole K with KNO3. An even better solution would be to have spinbuttons by the elements, and even by the gross errors for different elements.
For example N, 50P is the goal but the closest match Hydrobuddy could find is N, 75P, by adjusting the gross error it could find an other match that fits or closer to P instead of N, like 80N, 50P. However the spinbutton feature will NOT be implemented since the program does not "solve for an element" but simply finds the best mathematical solution to the problem.
Hydrobuddy's solution is the best mathematical compromise between all values it does NOT solve for any particular element and therefore changing from the best solution to one that favors a specific element is not possible. However I have implemented another small feature which allows you to change the element used as "degree of freedom", something which may allow you to obtain solutions that favor different elements depending on your substance inputs.
The newly implemented features will be released with the next version during next week. Hi Daniel, I'm having problems running your program. Either way I can't get it to run. Please advise if I need to install some runtime. Hello CristalLattice, Thank you for your comment: Please email me a screenshot of the error to dfernandezp at unal. Hi Daniel, I'm sitting here at home, busy on the net, and thought I'll give your prog another try and bang! The solution or problem is the firewall at work and the fact that I'm not always connected to the net at home.
It seems like your auto update routine is causing an error if it can't get through to the net. Fix that and I'll be able to play with your neat prog at work. I need to as it looks like I'll need a few hours to learn how to use all the advanced stuff. Keep up the good work and thanks for making it free! Hi again Daniel, Quick fix: Hi CrystalLattice, Thank you for your reply: Thanks you for helping me make the software better, Best Regards, Daniel.
Hello Everyone, Thank you for all your help and feature suggestions: The next release v1. Here is a copy of the changelog: By selecting a given weight within the substance selection screen the program will use a certain minimum weight as a constraint. Also those of you who were having trouble with the update. Please post any bugs, suggestions or feature requests for the next version: I am not sure if this is an error in your database or if we have a different product? Also, I was surprised to see that your Borax contained Fe.
Again, is this an error in your database, or is it something that actually exists in Borax? Hello Doug, Thank you for your comment and for noticing these bugs: They look very nice. The auto-update downloaded the zip file and opened a command prompt window which just sat there for a while. But when the command prompt closed and I clicked on HydroBuddy icon again it still said I had to update.
It looked like some of the files were updated since the date changed on them. I did have a zip file in the directory. Is that how you're supposed to do it? Maybe on a future update you could split that in the database and have fields for formula name, source, and notes. The notes could tell you things like "For tomatoes grown in Perilite using drip irrigation in Florida greenhouses".
I noticed you now sort the formulation names in the list which is a nice feature. I haven't tried the "use this minimum amount of substance" feature but it sounds interesting. Another thing I wish for is a "maximum ppm".
Mainly for Cl since I try to keep Cl levels under 75ppm in my formulas. Na might be another one to limit. I eagerly wait to see the cool stuff you put in the next version! Hey Daniel You have a great program here. I do have a question about liquid products that are given as grams in the tank breakdowns.
For example Nitric and Phosphoric acid are obviously liquid products but the recipe is given in grams. How can I work this out to get the correct L or fl oz number? Am I just missing something here? Thanks for your help Ian. Hey Ian, Thank you for your comment: Hello Michael, Thank you for your comment: I have taken note and will correct this within the next update, Daniel.
Regarding the EC values, they are calculated using a semi-empiric approach based on some simple mathematical manipulation of limiting molar conductivities. You can checkout the code to find out exactly how this is done.
I got this to run in Ubuntu In case anybody cares So far it works fine. Hello Tester, Thank you very much for your comment: However if you see any features on commercial software currently missing on HydroBuddy please let me know so that I can add them to future versions.
Thank you very much again for your support: Adding acids liquids by volume instead of their weight would be useful too, I have the density tables if you are interested. At the water page, a conversion between GH, total alkalinity etc would be useful too.
Regarding the acids, I am a little bit reluctant to do this since it would require the addition of at least two additional fields to the database a density field and another field to know whether something is a liquid or not so I would need to develop a whole database field updating solution which I don't have yet. However if I have the time I might be able to get this done: Regarding the water page, it has the same field problem regarding the water quality database but again, if I have the time I'll get it done: Feel free to leave any additional suggestions you may have!
The update will also keep your database records intact so you will not lose any of the information you have gathered. Please let me know about any other features you might consider useful: Thanks for the software Daniel! Quick question, I am adding a custom substance, L-Arginine, a common amino acid and am unsure of whether to list it as a nitrate or??
Also curious as to how the cost and purity tabs play into the formulation. Thanks for all your hard work. Hello Cue, Thank you for your comment: The cost value doesn't have any effect on overall calculations but it is merely a feature to help you know the total cost per preparation. Simply input your cost per kg and the program will print the cost for the substance for each preparation under the last column of the results tab the cost column. Purity does affect calculations directly, the more impure a substance is the more has to be added to reach a certain threshold requirement.
Please read this article so that you understand what purity is: Daniel, I am getting the following message when carrying out calculations "Gross errors on Fe are too high, probably an adequate solution was NOT found.
This happens whenever you use too many substances or your substances are a very inadequate match for the formulation you want remember that not all salt choices can generate all formulations due to the fact that achievable proportions are fixed within your salt choice. If you want you can post a comment with your salt selection and formulation or send me an email to dfernandezp at unal.
Thanks again for your comment: Hello Everyone, The latest update for HydroBuddy v1. Custom nutrient ratios can also be calculated besides the defaults. This is very useful for nutrient solution evaluation. Future versions will use this values to warn users about potential problems. Feel free to leave any bug reports, feature requests or suggestions, Best Regards, Daniel. Try reinstalling the program to fix this problem. The new version looks nice. I like the grid display on the results tab.
That is a lot easier to line up substances with their amounts. One issue I'm seeing is if a substance isn't used it gives the "not used" pop up but then gives an error box saying "" is an invalid float.
Press OK to ignore and risk data corruption. Press Cancel to kill the program. Pressing OK doesn't appear to hurt anything and you do get values on the results tab. But it makes me wonder if I'm silently corrupting the databases I also noticed the cost information for the substances was over written with the default instead of migrating any user supplied values. I found all the "database updated" pop-ups really annoying after the 10th one: Hello Steve, Thank you very much for your comment: Regarding the errors, I will look into the "not used" pop up error you mention and see if I can reproduce it, probably the error is related to some of the StringGrid changes I carried out.
However rest assured you're not corrupting the database. I will also correct the cost overwritting issue. Thank you very much again for helping me make the software better: X Tiger downwards compatible. Many especially old school folks do not have necessarily upgraded to Leopard or Snow Leopard perhaps Lion yet. Hi Jean-Luc, Thank you for your comment: You can use this binary to run Hydrobuddy natively on your Mac.
Hello Guys, I have just updated HydroBuddy to v1. This release is the culmination of a lot of effort: The program is now installed using a Full fledged installer that makes installing easier on all the different platforms: Thanks again for all your help and support: When clicking "GET H. Only if clicking the Button while holding cltr, the file can be downloaded when choosing "download file as" from the pop up menu.
Although Firefox downloads the file directly, the installer is corrupted and does not show up with the proper icon and without the.
I even tried to add the. Please compress the installer on the OS X machine in either. Otherwise the installer will obviously get corrupted in the process. It's a classic problem with uncompressed UNIX executable files and it can only be solved as described. Simply go to the directory where the installer is within a terminal and execute the command. I have confirmed on a few Macs that it works this way. Thanks again for your comments, Best Regards, Daniel.
Hello Jean-Luc, I have created a proper. Just download the zip file and you should be able to execute the installer right away. Please bear in mind that shortcut creation and end-of-install execution is not working yet on Macs and Linux so you'll need to browse to your install folder to execute HydroBuddy.
I hope this is much easier now: And usually I have NO trouble ever with installers, unless they say they say that the version is incompatible with my system. Any app can be easily dragged and dropped afterwards to "the dock" manually in a second. And again, as for the previous way to install via the terminal unix shell: I am not picky and Mac user since over 20 years. But that was kind of a tall order for any average Mac user.
With the terminal open, although the command line was correct and I managed to type it in - I got a permission denied message, when trying to run the installer - obviously as I was logged in as an user, not as a admin or superuser ;-. Therefore it is hard for me to provide support for older versions. In any case the installer should be executable through the command prompt as I described before.
If you keep having trouble with this installer send me an email and I'll email you a standalone copy of the hydrobuddy. Hi Mick, Thank you for your post: Thanks again for helping me make the program better, Best regards, Daniel.
Daniel, Love your product! I've tried the windows and linux versions and they work perfectly! My question is, how do I add trace element mixes as an custom substance? Hello David, Thank you for your email: Regarding your question, simply go to the substance selection screen and click the "Add Custom" button.
After you do this you'll be able to enter the composition percentages within each element's box. After this you'll be able to use it in calculations either to know how much to add for a given formulation or to know the resulting ppm by setting a weight using the "set weight" button after setting the calculation to "Concentrations from Weights". I hope this helps you with HydroBuddy: Thanks for the reply. The only problem is it keeps giving me a high Cu.
My book Soil Fertility and Fertilizers 7th Edition say that normal Cu concentrations in plant tissues range from 5 to 20 ppm, however soil concentrations average around 9ppm. Does that mean having 2. Hi David, Thank you for your reply: You would need to have only 0. It is probable that your fertilizer is not geared for hydroponics but for soil use and for this reason copper might be higher foliar fertilizers are usually very high in copper to aid in fungal disease prevention for example.
This fertilizer might NOT be appropriate for hydroponic use if it has such a high Cu concentration. Thank you very much again for your comments: Hi Daniel, How much should i dilute the Nutrient solutions when the outside temp is high and the humidity is high. What is the relation between temperature and the concentraion of the nutrient solution. Will the nutrient soultion composition or concentration change with changing temperature for vegetables.
In my area the temperature is always between 23C - 36C with high humidity. Please advice the best option to grow vegetables. Hi Praveen, Thank you for your comment: There are many forums within the web where you can find people who will be more than willing to answer your questions. Please limit future comments on this post to matters dealing with HydroBuddy, Best regards, Daniel.
Hi Daniel, Firstly i must thank you for the software, as it has tremendously help me understanding and creating the nutrient i required. But, with the new Hydrobuddy v1. Same thing happen i download on other computer. I sincerely appreciate if you help to resolve this problems. Once again Thank you. Hi Alsagaff, Thank you for your comment: Please specify the version of windows you're using.
Try the following steps to see if the problem gets fixed: Also please ensure you're installing HydroBuddy using the latest installer. Thank you very much again for your comment, Best Regards, Daniel. Hi Daniel, Thank you for your feedback. I will try base on your suggestion and shall get back to you soon. Daniel- Awesome to see a release for OSX! However, I am having difficulties adding custom substances.
I get an error message looking for a. Please post the exact error you are getting. Thanks again for reporting the problem, Best Regards, Daniel. Hello tester, Thank you for your comment: The above mentioned effects cannot be easily predicted so I would not dare include any sort of solubility based criteria.
I'm just wondering if you have had any issues with this. This cross-sectional study identified PFV in a 3-step process. Berry fruits and allium vegetables were added in light of their associations with reduced risks for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and some cancers 8. For each, and for 4 items apples, bananas, corn, and potatoes described elsewhere as low-nutrient-dense 1 , information was collected in February on amounts of the 17 nutrients and kilocalories per g of food 9.
Because preparation methods can alter the nutrient content of foods 2 , nutrient data were for the items in raw form. Second, a nutrient density score was calculated for each food using the method of Darmon et al The scores were weighted using available data Table 1 based on the bioavailability of the nutrients As some foods are excellent sources of a particular nutrient but contain few other nutrients, percent DVs were capped at so that any one nutrient would not contribute unduly to the total score 3.
The denominator is the energy density of the food kilocalories per g: The score represents the mean of percent DVs per kcal of food. Because there are no standards defining good sources of a combination of nutrients-per-kilocalories, the FDA threshold was used for this purpose. The 4 low-nutrient-dense items were classified as non-PFV. To validate the classification scheme, the Spearman correlation between nutrient density scores and powerhouse group was examined.
The robustness of the scheme with respect to nutrients beneficial in chronic disease risk also was examined by comparing foods classified as PFV with those separately classified as such based on densities of 8 nutrients protective against cancer and heart disease ie, fiber, folate, zinc, and vitamins B 6 , B 12 , C, D, and E 2,4.
Of 47 foods studied, all but 6 raspberry, tangerine, cranberry, garlic, onion, and blueberry satisfied the powerhouse criterion Table 2. Nutrient density scores ranged from