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Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Do testosterone injections increase libido for elderly hypogonadal patients? Medieval Food — academic articles and videos The History Notes website tells the story about the food and drink in the Middle Ages Le Viandier de Taillevent — An online translation of the 14th century cookbook by James Prescott Medieval cookery books at the British Library — Learning resources on the medieval kitchen How to Cook Medieval — A guide on how to make medieval cuisine with modern ingredients The Forme of Cury — A late 14th-century English cookbook, available from Project Gutenberg Cariadoc's Miscellany — A collection of articles and recipes on medieval and Renaissance food MedievalCookery. In the household of Henry Stafford in , gentle members received 2.
How to Read Food Labels
Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.
Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself. The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison.
Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids. AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand.
The history of the U. The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone. By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U. In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.
Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person.
Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark,  France,  the Netherlands  and Sweden. United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers. It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.
Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.
As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents. In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of A year later, the DEA seized In the first three months of , Australian customs reported a record seizures of AAS shipments.
Illegal AAS are sometimes sold at gyms and competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. AAS, alone and in combination with progestogens , have been studied as potential male hormonal contraceptives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about androgens as medications. For androgens as natural hormones, see Androgen. Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport.
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Regulation of the secretion of GnRH, FSH, and LH occurs partially by the negative feedback of testosterone and estradiol at the level of the hypothalamo-pituitary. Estradiol has a much larger, inhibitory effect than testosterone, being fold more effective in suppressing LH secretion [57—61]. Androgens, estrogens and progestins exert a negative feedback effect on the secretion of GnRH and LH by their actions on the pituitary and the hypothalamus. Most of the negative feedback effect of androgens is caused by their estrogenic metabolites produced by aromatization.
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And the silver-spoon award undoubtedly goes to In The Zone Delivery , a white-glove service for people who'll spare no expense to drop the pounds. Here's how the plans stack up. See the handy chart at the bottom of the page for a side-by-side comparison. The oldest national weight-loss program, its members rave about the encouragement they get at weekly meetings led by former Weight Watchers dieters.
Nutritionists praise the portion-control points system: Each food is assigned points based on its serving size, calories, fiber, and fat; and no foods are forbidden. Your point allowance is based on your weight, height, gender, age, and activity level.
A recent clinical study in the New England Journal of Medicine linked group counseling sessions to weight-loss success. That explains why Weight Watchers has impressive short-term results. A study in the Annals of Internal Medicine showed participants lost an average of about 5 percent of their body weight 10 pounds in six months. Two years later, they had kept about half the weight off. To help members stay on track, Weight Watchers encourages them to attend meetings until they've stayed within 2 pounds of their goal weight for six weeks.
After that, you get free lifetime membership. The company says members using its online tools in addition to attending meetings lost 50 percent more weight than those going to meetings alone.
Cost to lose 20 pounds: We looked at two plans from eDiets - one that offers support alone, and another with meal delivery. You can choose from among more than 20 diet plans, including ones for diabetics and vegetarians. Online tools let you set goals, plan menus and generate shopping lists. There's no face-to-face support, but you get support through online message boards and a mentor program that connects newbies with an experienced member. Also, you can reach a registered dietitian or personal trainer by phone at any time.
The optional meal delivery service offers freshly prepared, calorie-controlled meals delivered by FedEx. But telephone support has some evidence in its favor: Yes, it's a bargain for round-the-clock support.
For about the same money, other services offer better track records. For the first two weeks, you eat three extremely low-carb meals a day plus mandatory snacks. After that, you gradually add "good carbs," such as fruits and whole grains. You can customize menus, search a database of more than 1, recipes and get a personalized shopping list. There's online support from staff dieticians and members plus daily motivational emails.
Studies have shown that after one year, carb-restricted diets led to greater weight loss and increased heart health than low-fat diets.
However, the advantage disappeared over the long term. How much can you expect to lose? Figure on 8 to 13 pounds during the two- week kick-start phase, then 1 to 2 pounds a week thereafter. It doesn't cost much, but you don't get as much support as with Weight Watchers or eDiets. The Zone diet is mostly meat, fruits, and vegetables. You eat three meals per day plus two Zone protein-powder snacks. A study of people in the Journal of American Medical Association found the Zone diet helped people achieve modest weight loss after one year, comparable with those on the Atkins , Weight Watchers and Ornish diets, and improved cardiac risk factors.
Premium-priced Jenny Craig lets you order its heart-healthy, nutritionally balanced packaged food by phone and pick it up at a Jenny Craig center or have it delivered through Jenny Direct. You eat three Jenny Craig meals plus a snack per day, and supplement with fruit, vegetables and dairy. Once a week, you get a weigh-in and pep talk with a consultant - who is not a dietician and who earns commissions from selling you products. There's also round-the-clock phone support. Jenny Craig has a good track record for short-term weight loss up to one year.
In a UC San Diego clinical trial of dieters funded by Jenny Craig , Jenny Craig clients lost 11 percent of their initial weight after 12 months, compared with 3 percent weight loss by those who were dieting on their own.
The "doctor-designed" Bistro M. The price is a cut above the competition, too. The plan tries to help you avoid a weight-loss stall out by varying the daily calorie intake between 1, and 1, By eating a little more some days and a little less on others, you'll supposedly prevent your body from becoming used to the same number of calories every day.
While no university studies support the theory that varying caloric intake aids weight loss, the high quality of the food and the relatively large portion sizes have been praised by Health magazine, Dr. Phil and The New York Times. Some plan users have complained of a lack of choices and menu flexibility compared to other plans, but a company spokesman says they offer more than entrees and can make substitutions to accommodate allergies and food preferences.
It's a reasonable price for well-made food with slightly faster average weight loss than with Jenny Craig. This meal-delivery service, endorsed by Marie Osmond and Dan Marino, emphasizes foods with a low glycemic index. The underlying premise is that controlling blood sugar levels leads to weight loss. The heat-and-eat prepared meals and snacks contain roughly 55 percent "good" carbs, 25 percent protein, and 20 percent fats; like Jenny Craig, you add fruits, vegetables and dairy.
Support is available through phone counseling and online chat rooms. There's plenty of research showing that following a diet of 1, to 1, calories a day, such as Nutrisystem, can cause weight loss. For example, a study by the Obesity Research Center at St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital in New York found that postmenopausal women who followed a 1,calorie plan for 16 weeks lost an average of 21 pounds. For a meal-delivery diet system, Nutrisystem is more economical than Jenny Craig.
Although today's program is not as stringent as the original liquid fast Medifast launched decades ago, the low-fat, relatively low-carb plan is designed to bring about rapid weight loss by coaxing your body into a "fat-burning state" known as ketosis. The 70 meal replacement choices include shakes, bars, soups, pudding, oatmeal, chili, pretzel sticks, cheese puffs, and scrambled eggs. If you can stick with it, a diet of 1, calories a day can certainly induce rapid weight loss.
A common concern with such low-calorie diets is that you'll quickly regain the weight, but in a small clinical trial recently published in the journal Experimental Biology , after 10 months, only about one in five people regained all the weight they had lost. Choose this more extreme plan only if quick weight loss is your priority. Within hours of posting a seven-second video of their son learning to walk, Whitney and Adam Dinkel were flooded with messages.