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Smart Snacks in Schools

National School Lunch Program
Hmmm… well, it looks like the unions dried GM out and the government moved into finally kill it. It's no louder than a fan running! In all this discussion about Obama and Ayers, there is one thing missing: The muslim thug president of Kenya, and African travel partner of Obama and his supposedly first cousin is Raila Odinga. They had a huge inflatable motorcycle on stage and at one point the drummer spun around. I for one resented that someone else worked so hard to destroy everything I supported. Do another track for his interactions and marriage to his wife, her interactions and activities.

Hormonal control of appetite and body fat

A significant expansion of the potential market for probiotics has led to higher requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by the microorganisms. Probiotics are considered generally safe to consume, but may cause bacteria -host interactions and unwanted side effects in rare cases. This first global effort was further developed in ; two expert groups of academic scientists and industry representatives made recommendations for the evaluation and validation of probiotic health claims.

This definition, though widely adopted, is not acceptable to the European Food Safety Authority because it embeds a health claim that is not measurable. In October , this expert consultation defined probiotics as live micro-organisms that " A group of scientific experts assembled in London, UK, on October 23, , to discuss the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. The meeting was motivated by developments in the field since The panel's conclusions were published in June Probiotics must be alive when administered.

Only products that contain live organisms shown in reproducible human studies to confer a health benefit can actually claim to be probiotic. This aspect represents a major challenge for scientific and industrial investigations because several difficulties arise, such as variability in the site for probiotic use oral, vaginal, intestinal and mode of application.

The probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes genus , species , and strain level. It is commonly admitted that most effects of probiotics are strain-specific and cannot be extended to other probiotics of the same genus or species.

Probiotics must be safe for their intended use. In Europe, EFSA has adopted a premarket system for safety assessment of microbial species used in food and feed productions, to set priorities for the need of risk assessment.

Finally, probiotics must be supplied in adequate numbers, which may be defined as the number able to trigger the targeted effect on the host. Probiotics have received renewed attention in the 21st century from product manufacturers, research studies, and consumers. The history of probiotics can be traced to the first use of cheese and fermented products, that were well known to the Greeks and Romans who recommended their consumption.

The original modern hypothesis of the positive role played by certain bacteria was first introduced by Russian scientist and Nobel laureate Élie Metchnikoff , who in suggested that it would be possible to modify the gut microbiota and to replace harmful microbes with useful microbes. Proteolytic bacteria such as clostridia , which are part of the normal gut microbiota, produce toxic substances including phenols , indols , and ammonia from the digestion of proteins.

According to Metchnikoff, these compounds were responsible for what he called intestinal autointoxication , which would cause the physical changes associated with old age. It was at that time known that milk fermented with lactic-acid bacteria inhibits the growth of proteolytic bacteria because of the low pH produced by the fermentation of lactose.

Metchnikoff had also observed that certain rural populations in Europe, for example in Bulgaria and the Russian steppes, who lived largely on milk fermented by lactic-acid bacteria were exceptionally long lived. Based on these observations, Metchnikoff proposed that consumption of fermented milk would "seed" the intestine with harmless lactic-acid bacteria and decrease the intestinal pH, and that this would suppress the growth of proteolytic bacteria.

Metchnikoff himself introduced in his diet sour milk fermented with the bacteria he called "Bulgarian Bacillus" and believed his health benefited. Friends in Paris soon followed his example and physicians began prescribing the sour-milk diet for their patients. Bifidobacteria were first isolated from a breast-fed infant by Henry Tissier, who also worked at the Pasteur Institute.

The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis [32] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium. Tissier found that bifidobacteria are dominant in the gut microbiota of breast-fed babies and he observed clinical benefits from treating diarrhea in infants with bifidobacteria.

The claimed effect was bifidobacterial displacement of proteolytic bacteria causing the disease. During an outbreak of shigellosis in , German professor Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of Escherichia coli from the feces of a soldier who was not affected by the disease.

In , Rettger and Cheplin reported that Metchnikoff's "Bulgarian Bacillus", later called Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. They observed changes in composition of fecal microbiota, which they described as "transformation of the intestinal flora ". In certain strains of L. Contrasting antibiotics, probiotics were defined as microbially derived factors that stimulate the growth of other microorganisms. In Roy Fuller suggested a definition of probiotics that has been widely used: The term "probiotic" originally referred to microorganisms that have effects on other microorganisms.

The term was used again [37] to describe tissue extracts that stimulated microbial growth. The term probiotics was taken up by Parker, [38] who defined the concept as, "Organisms and substances that have a beneficial effect on the host animal by contributing to its intestinal microbial balance. Fuller described probiotics as a "live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. In the following decades, intestinal lactic acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Lactobacillus casei , and Lactobacillus johnsonii.

The European Food Safety Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers for health claims on probiotic products in Europe due to insufficient research, and thus inconclusive proof of effectiveness.

In the United States, where food product labeling requires language approval by the FDA, probiotic manufacturers have received warning letters for making disease or treatment claims. Probiotics have been the subject of research to see whether the health claims made for them have any supporting evidence.

Recent developments of high-throughput sequencing technology and the consequent progresses of metagenomics represent a new approach for the future of probiotics research. Studies are examining whether probiotics affect mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, [45] diarrhea , [46] or urogenital infections. Research into the potential health effects of supplemental probiotics has included the molecular biology and genomics of Lactobacillus in immune function, cancer, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea , travellers' diarrhea, pediatric diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease , and irritable bowel syndrome.

Although research does suggest that the relationship between the gut microbiota and humans is a mutualistic relationship, [52] very little evidence supports claims that probiotic dietary supplements have any health benefits. Claims that some lactobacilli may contribute to weight gain in some humans [54] [55] remain controversial. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health , "Although some probiotics have shown promise in research studies, strong scientific evidence to support specific uses of probiotics for most health conditions is lacking.

Probiotics are ineffective in preventing allergies in children, with the possible exception of eczema. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. These microbial community alterations result in changes in carbohydrate metabolism , with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result. The Cochrane review concluded that the evidence gathered suggested a protective effect of some probiotics in this condition in children.

Probiotic treatment might reduce the incidence and severity of AAD as indicated in several meta-analyses. The potential efficacy of probiotic AAD prevention depends on the probiotic strains and dosage. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species found in the healthy vagina to cure the infection of bacteria causing bacterial vaginosis. Currently, the success of such treatment has been mixed since the use of probiotics to restore healthy populations of Lactobacillus has not been standardized.

Often, standard antibiotic treatment is used at the same time that probiotics are being tested. In addition, some groups of women respond to treatment based upon ethnicity, age, number of sexual partners, pregnancy, and the pathogens causing bacterial vaginosis. The consumption of probiotics may modestly help to control high blood pressure. Preliminary human and animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some strains of lactic acid bacteria LAB for reducing serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut , thus inhibiting its reabsorption where it enters the blood as cholesterol.

A meta-analysis that included five double-blind trials examining the short-term 2—8 weeks effects of a yogurt with probiotic strains on serum cholesterol levels found a minor change of 8.

A slightly longer study evaluating the effect of a yogurt with probiotic strains on 29 subjects over six months found no statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol or LDL values. Probiotics are commonly given to breast-feeding mothers and their young children to prevent eczema, but some doubt exists over the strength of evidence supporting this effect. Some strains of lactic acid bacteria may affect Helicobacter pylori infections which may cause peptic ulcers in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments, but no standard in medical practice or regulatory approval exists for such treatment.

Some strains of lactic acid bacteria LAB may affect pathogens by means of competitive inhibition i. A large study demonstrated that probiotics may decrease dental caries in children. Some strains of LAB may modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function. Probiotics are being studied for their potential to influence inflammatory bowel disease.

There is some evidence to support their use in conjunction with standard medications in treating ulcerative colitis and no evidence of their efficacy in treating Crohn's disease. A live formulation of lyophilized Bifidobacterium breve , Bifidobacterium longum , Bifidobacterium infantis , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus paracasei , Lactobacillus bulgaricus , and Streptococcus thermophilus VSL 3 has shown effectiveness in the small clinical trials, some of which were not randomized nor double-blinded, that had been done as of ; more high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine safety and effectiveness.

Probiotics are under study for their potential to affect irritable bowel syndrome , although uncertainty remains around which type of probiotic works best, and around the size of possible effect. Ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose-intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than they would otherwise have tolerated.

Several clinical studies provide evidence for the potential of probiotics to lower the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in premature infants. A review based on moderate to low-quality evidences suggests that probiotics may be helpful in relieving pain in the short term in children with recurrent abdominal pain, but the proper strain and dosage are not known.

There is no good evidence that probiotics are of benefit in the management of infection or inflammation of the urinary tract. Probiotic treatment has been studied as a means of addressing disorders associated with vitamin deficiencies including those of vitamin K , [92] folic acid , [93] and vitamin B The manipulation of the gut microbiota is complex and may cause bacteria-host interactions.

It has been suggested that Lactobacillus contributes to obesity in humans, but no evidence of this relationship has been found. Live probiotic cultures are available in fermented dairy products and probiotic fortified foods.

However, tablets, capsules, powders, and sachets containing the bacteria in freeze-dried form are also available. Probiotics taken orally can be destroyed by the acidic conditions of the stomach. A number of microencapsulation techniques are being developed to address this problem.

There is only preliminary evidence for most probiotic health claims. Even for the most studied strains, few have been sufficiently developed in basic and clinical research to warrant approval for health claim status by a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration or European Food Safety Authority , and, as of , no claims had been approved by those two agencies.

Some fermented products contain lactic acid bacteria, including pickled vegetables , [99] tempeh , [] miso , [] kefir , [] buttermilk or karnemelk , [] kimchi , [99] [] pao cai , [] sauerkraut , [] and soy sauce. Due to these ambiguities, the European Commission placed a ban on putting the word "probiotic" on the packaging of products because such labeling misleads consumers to believe a health benefit is provided by the product when no scientific proof exists to demonstrate that health effect.

In the United States, the FDA and Federal Trade Commission have issued warning letters and imposed punishment on various manufacturers of probiotic products whose labels claim to treat a disease or condition. Preliminary research is evaluating the potential physiological effects of multiple probiotic strains, as opposed to a single strain. Modern high-definition technology is amazing for movies and sports and now, it's even better for video security! The latest in cutting-edge HD technology has greatly impacted the video surveillance market.

Customers continue to demand more enhanced image quality for use in applications where showcasing movement and identifying objects are vital.

Nothing is more precious than your family, your home, your business and your peace of mind. Clearer HD images and video greatly enhance the recognition of intricate details such as license plate numbers and distinct facial features. With the introduction of HD resolution in security cameras, clearer and sharper images have become the new standard.

Videos Video is not supported in this browser Play Again. Looks nice, wish I could use it. I may get this hooked up and use it one day. Jchristian, August 23, Night owl security system DVR. Mine worked for 16 days, no store return after 15 days, one Chanel fried inside this super cheap DVR.

Night owl warranty is a joke and no one ever answers the phone. So save yourself a lot of anguish and buy another system. Don, June 21, Love this security system! I can see who comes into my yard when I'm away. Our shed has been broken into before, and although we knew who was responsible, we had no proof. Now we will have a record of any malfeasance that occurs.

So we'll get 'em next time! Just having the system will probably deter the thieves. The DVR is easy to work and the picture is clear and sharp. I can see what my cat is up to when I'm gone. But the camera loves him! The system also alerted us to the fact that there is a giant moth that flies around our living room while we sleep. I highly recommend this system! Just in case you ever have to turn in the DVR for evidence. Good cameras, good night vision, some issues.

For that price I could not pass up a 4 camera security system. Hooking up the system had no issues other then the difficulty of running the camera wires through my attic. But that has nothing to do with the actual system.

I have played with some of the settings and I can definitely say there are plenty of options but you will need to experiment with it to figure things out. The recording works very well, the motion sensitive works very well but is very sensitive. The night vision is where this camera system really shines in my opinion.

It is pitch black and I can see clearly at least 20ft away which is just about the length of my driveway and walkway to my front door. The only issue I have had with this system is that the AC adapter power cord is faulty and makes a fairly loud screeching noise in sync with the hard drive in the DVR.

It is loud enough that after 5 minutes of having it plugged in I used a different AC adapter. Unfortunately the only other one I had that worked does not output enough juice to power the hard drive and the DVR.

Research question