Agriculture

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Difficulties in interpreting soil test results leads to preference for plant testing as a quantitative diagnostic tool BCG I most likely have some PTSD and extreme stress etc. I also just ordered Mind lab pro! Membranes of the fetus and embryo. Rizza W , Veronese N , Fontana L What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

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Zinc fertiliser is mainly applied to the soil at seeding time as either liquid or solid zinc sulphate ZnSO4 , as solid zinc oxide ZnO Mortvedt and Gilkes , or as a. A major difference between ZnO4 and ZnO is their solubility in water and therefore their immediate availability to plants; ZnO4 is water soluble whilst ZnO has a low solubility in water Mortvedt and Gilkes Alternative soil amendments that are by-products of other industries, including biosolids and flyash, are available in particular regions however there agronomic values is yet to comprehensively assessed and may contain toxic quantities of other heavy metals Cooper ,.

Comparing the effectiveness of different Zn fertiliser forms shows that liquid ZnSO4 is more effective at producing the same grain yield than granular ZnSO4 and the Zn impurities in superphosphate Mortvedt and Gilkes This general finding matches results from alkaline soils on the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia Bertrand et al where liquid fertiliser produced higher grain yields than powdered fertiliser. However, the role of liquid Zn in the Eyre Peninsula research cannot be separated from the role of P and N as the fertilisers were a mix of P, N and Zn Holloway et al Brennan and Bolland a show that soil pH effects the effectiveness of powdered Zn fertilisers with ZnSO4 being superior to ZnO on alkaline soils and equivalent on acid soils.

Overall, these results indicate that ZnSO4, particularly in a liquid form is a more efficient source of Zn that other soil applied Zn fertilisers especially in alkaline soils.

The principles demonstrated by the research presented are likely to be applicable in south-eastern Australia however no local field research is available that examines Zn alone or compares ZnO and ZnSO4. Foliar application of Zn is an alternative to soil applied Zn fertiliser. Foliar application has the advantage of allowing Zn to be applied strategically based on seasonal progress and the occurrence of visual symptoms. Comparing the effect of foliar Zn and soil applied Zn on wheat grain yield shows no difference on an alkaline sandy loam on the Eyre Peninsula Oliver et al and better yields with soil applied Zn on acid sands in Western Australia Brennan The type of foliar Zn fertiliser, ZnSO4 or zinc chelate, that was most effective for the wheat grown on sands was dependent on timing of application Brennan Foliar Zn fertiliser is applied to wheat in south-eastern Australia to reduce the impact of yellow leaf spot Pyenophora tritici-repentis however there is no evidence in referreed literature that this is an effective treatment for crop disease in wheat.

Logistically, placement of soil-applied fertilisers can be shallow or at depth. Ma reviewed the effectiveness of deep placement of fertilisers in Mediterranean environments, including south-eastern Australia.

Deep placement of fertiliser generally means applying fertiliser at least 30mm below the seed. Placement of fertilisers containing elements with low mobility, including P and Zn, improves grain yields in environments where the top soil is prone to drying out and subsequently nutrients are immobilised Lindsay , Ma et al These environments include the sandy soils of Eyre Peninsula and low rainfall environments Wilhelm Australian research specifically examining the benefits of placing Zn at depth is rare.

Wheat needs Zn to be available throughout the life of the plant Longnecker and Robson Thus Zn must be supplied at seeding in soils deficient in Zn. The agronomic advantage of applying Zn at depth in soil prone to drying means that in practice Zn fertiliser must be applied before or during seeding in those.

Similarly, the yield advantage of applying liquid fertiliser to calcareous and alkaline soils means that application must occur before or during seeding.

The timing of application for foliar Zn fertilisers is operationally more flexible than solid fertiliser. However, for yield responses, timing must occur early in crop growth if plants are deficient in Zn and are not to suffer a yield penalty Brennan The most effective form of Zn in foliar applications varies with the timing of the application.

Zinc chelate is more effective at increasing grain yield than ZnSO4 when applied at 4 leaf stage growth stage GS 14 according to Zadoks et al Both forms of foliar Zn are equally effective when applied later at mid-tillering GS There are three general approaches to determining whether a nutrient needs to be applied soil testing, historical records plant testing.

Soil testing in a pre-emptive indicator for the amount of major nutrients nitrogen N , phosphorus P and potassium K available to a planned crop.

Soil samples are tested for Zn as a cheap adjunct to testing for major elements. Placement of soil- sampling points influences soil test results with higher Zn values occurring if all samples are taken on existing rows rather than between rows Bolland and Brennan. Sampling randomly both in and between rows provides an overall Zn value for the sample area. Soil testing of the top 10cm layer is promoted for the major cropping soils in Australia as being relevant for making decisions about immobile plant nutrients such as P GRDC Given availability of Zn in soil is reduced as soil pH increases Lindsay , pH of the solution is standardised at pH7.

Critical Zn values relevant to wheat for extractable Zn vary with soil type Armour and Brennan and not all soil types have been calibrated for the extraction. This limits interpretation of test results with some soils being unresponsive to Zn although they are deemed to be Zn deficient Oliver et al However, soil calibrations for this method have not been pursued and subsequently are rare Armour and Brennan Zn application through fertiliser is virtually omitted when high analysis fertilisers such as mono- ammonium phosphate MAP and di-ammonium phosphate DAP are used exclusively rather than fertilisers such as superphosphate that contain Zn impurities Brennan that are sufficient for wheat production in Western Australia sands Riley et al A history of symptoms of Zn deficiency in past crops does not always indicate that applying Zn fertiliser to the current crop will lead to an improvement in grain yield Oliver et al Zinc can be taken up by plants through the leaves Haslett et al Therefore limited calibrations for soil Zn coupled with the technical possibility of foliar application of Zn makes tissue testing viable for diagnosing and correcting Zn deficiencies as the plant grows.

Zinc is a trace element thus plant samples must be taken with care to avoid contamination with Zn from other sources such as soil or cutting tools Reuter et al a. Zinc is largely immobile in soil and only moves short distances from the point of placement.

In soil columns, Zn leaches less than 3cm down calcareous silty clay Jurinka and Thorne In the field, Zn leached up to 6cm below the point of application in acidic sandy soils in Western Australia after heavy rains Brennan and McGrath In contrast, Zn fertiliser moved up to 45cm into a sandy soil profile under young trees Barrows et al These differences in movement support the inclusion of soil texture in subjective assessment for Zn availability Norton et al.

Zinc fertiliser applied to soil has a residual effect on crop growth for several years depending on crop and soil type. Lindsay concluded after reviewing the literature, that Zn fertilisers applied to soil have a residual effect for two to eight. The residual effect of Zn fertiliser on acidic sandy soil in Western Australia is estimated to be about 23 years for a single application at 0. These timeframes cannot be extrapolated to the alkaline soils of south- eastern Australia due in part to the difference in pH.

Soil moisture affects the availability of Zn to plants because most movement of Zn in the soil is by diffusion Lindsay Thus uptake of Zn by plants is reduced under drier conditions as the diffusion rate is slowed. Dry soil also restricts root growth and thus the ability of the plant to seek out Zn in the soil, be it soil Zn or fertiliser Zn Marschner This explains why critical soil Zn value derived for one soil cannot be readily extrapolated to another soil.

Reduced solubility of Zn2 also helps explain why Zn deficiency is common in crops grown on the alkaline soils of the South Australia and north- western Victoria McDonald et al Liming acid soils induces Zn deficiency in wheat on some acid soils in Western Australia Brennan et al In practical terms, alkaline soils may have the same extractable DTPA Zn value as acid soils yet show Zn deficiency in crop Lindsay Physiochemical constraints to crop growth are identified in several studies in south- eastern Australia and are summarised by Adcock et al as boron toxicity, carbonate, aluminate, salinity, sodicity and alkalinity.

Alkalinity is the main physicochemical constraint to that directly reduces Zn uptake due to the dependence of Zn solubility on pH. Other physiochemical constraints that reduce root growth through the soil reduce access to soil Zn and will therefore reduce the availability of soil Zn to the plant Lindsay Plant roots must actively grow into soil that contains Zn fertiliser to enable Zn.

This requirement means that the limited availability of the major nutrients N and P that restricts root growth also restricts Zn uptake. Conversely, crops exhibit a Zn deficiency due to nutrient dilution when Zn availability is marginal and P and N.

Uptake of Zn from soil also effects uptake of other micronutrients in wheat and subsequent crop growth. Adequate Zn in soil coupled with inadequate copper Cu leads to Cu deficiency in wheat due to. Interactions between Zn and boron, manganese, iron and cobalt is also demonstrated overseas however they are unlikely to apply to the wheat production areas of south-eastern Australia given local climatic and soil conditions Loneragan and Webb There is sufficient genetic variation in Zn uptake efficiency of wheat cultivars for the trait to be selected for in breeding programs Graham and Rengel , Genc and McDonald Severity of visual symptoms of Zn deficiency is related to the plants Zn efficiency in low Zn soils with less efficient cultivars showing more severe symptoms than more efficiency cultivars Genc and McDonald Arbuscular mycorrhizae AM provides a source of nutrients to some crops such as sorghum.

Subsoil constraints to crop production on neutral and alkaline soils in south-eastern Australia: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. From Development to Disease. John Wiley and Sons. Journal of Lipid Research. Journal of Reproductive Immunology.

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Umbilical cord Umbilical artery Umbilical vein Wharton's jelly. Blastocoel Heuser's membrane Vitelline duct Gestational sac. Development of the circulatory system. Truncus arteriosus Bulbus cordis Primitive ventricle Primitive atrium Sinus venosus. Atrioventricular Primary interventricular foramen Endocardial cushions Septum intermedium Atrioventricular canal Atrial Septum primum Foramen secundum Primary interatrial foramen Septum secundum Foramen ovale.

Aorticopulmonary septum Protein signalling in heart development. Dorsal aorta Aortic arches Aortic sac. Anterior cardinal vein Posterior cardinal vein Common cardinal veins.

Vascular remodelling in the embryo. Blood islands Chorion Connecting stalk Yolk sac Placenta. Vitelline veins Vitelline arteries. Retrieved from " https: Vertebrate developmental biology Embryology of cardiovascular system Organs anatomy Reproductive system Microbiomes Human female endocrine system.

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